Ernst Rüdin (April 19, 1874 - October 22, 1952), was a Swiss psychiatrist, geneticist and eugenicist. Rüdin was born in St. Gallen, Switzerland. He is known as one of the fathers of racial hygiene.

Ernst Rüdin Quotes

"Aufgaben and Ziele der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Rassenhygiene" Archiv für Rassen- und Gesellschaftsbiologie 28 (1934): pp. 228-29
"The Science and Politics of Racial Research" by William Tucker. University of Illinois Press, 1994.
"Psychiatric research and science policy in Germany: the history of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich from 1917 to 1945)" MM. Weber, 2000
"Program and practice of psychiatric genetics at the German Research Institute of Psychiatry under Ernst Rudin: on the relationship between science, politics and the concept of race before and after 1993" by V. Roelcke, 2002
"Racial Hygiene" by Robert Proctor.
Matthias M. Weber (1996). "Ernst Rüdin, 1874-1952: A German psychiatrist and geneticist". American Journal of Medical Genetics 67 (4): 323 - 331. DOI:<323::AID-AJMG2>3.0.CO;2-N 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19960726)67:4<323::AID-AJMG2>3.0.CO;2-N. 
Elliot S. Gershon (1997). "Ernst Rüdin, a Nazi psychiatrist and geneticist". American Journal of Medical Genetics 74 (4): 457 - 458. DOI:<457::AID-AJMG23>3.0.CO;2-G 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19970725)74:4<457::AID-AJMG23>3.0.CO;2-G. 
Edith Zerbin-Rüdin, Kenneth S. Kendler (1996). "Ernst Rüdin (1874-1952) and his genealogic-demographic department in Munich (1917-1986): An introduction to their family studies of schizophrenia". American Journal of Medical Genetics 67 (4): 332 - 337. DOI:<332::AID-AJMG3>3.0.CO;2-O 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19960726)67:4<332::AID-AJMG3>3.0.CO;2-O. 


Dan Wasserman
Dan Wasserman is an American political cartoonist for The Boston Globe.


Although slightly smaller in scale that its predecessor, the Théâtre de l'Académie Royale de Musique, the Palais Garnier consists of 11,000 square metres (118,404 square feet), seats an audience of roughly 2,200 under a central chandelier which weighs over six tons, and has a huge stage with room to accommodate up to 450 artists. An ornate building, the style is monumental, opulently decorated with elaborate multicolored marble friezes, columns, and lavish statuary, many of which portray the deities from Greek mythology. Between the columns of the theatre's front façade, there are bronze busts of many of the great composers, such as Mozart and Beethoven. The interior consists of interweaving corridors, stairwells, alcoves and landings allowing the movement of large amounts of people and space for socializing during intermission. Rich with velvet, gold leaf, and cherubs and nymphs, the interior is characteristic of Baroque sumptuousness. The Palais Garnier's style is considered Beaux-Arts because it incorporates classical principles (symmetry in design) and exterior ornamentation.

Architecture and style

The Phantom Theater at The Venetian Resort in Las Vegas, NV was custom built to resemble the Palais Garnier.
Director Sofia Coppola's 2006 bio-pic Marie Antoinette used the Entrée Principale and the Grand Escalier of the Palais Garnier for the scene of a masked ball. Interestingly, this theatre did not exist during Queen Marie Antoinette's lifetime, as it was not completed until 1875.
The building was partially replicated in the city-building PC game Sim City 4 as the Opera House, where it can be located in the city as a reward.
The opera house is used in the animated film Anastasia, where the Variation of the Spring Fairy from Prokofiev's Cinderella is accompanying a ballet performance.
In the Dead or Alive video game series, the character Helena does her performance in the Palais Garnier at the time when the assassin Christie tries to kill Helena with her sniper rifle, but Helena's mother saw Christie and shielded her daughter. Christie assassinated Helena's mother instead as she was protecting Helena.
The Hanoi Opera House was built after the model of this opera. See also
Palais Garnier Liberty roof sculpture by Charles Gumery
Palais Garnier


Utica is a village in Seward County, Nebraska, United States. The population was 844 at the 2000 census.

Utica, Nebraska Geography
Utica is located at 40°53′42″N, 97°20′43″W (40.894938, -97.345366).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.1 km² (0.4 mi²), all land.


Bogey or Bogie may refer to:
Bogey (golf), a golfing term for "one over par"
Humphrey Bogart (Bogie), American actor
Bogie, a chassis or framework carrying wheels, as on a train carriage or locomotive
Bogey Orangutan, a member of the Shirt Tales cartoons
Hobgoblin, a friendly or amusing goblin

  • Bogeyman, boogeyman, boogyman, or bogyman, a legendary ghost-like monster with no specific appearance
    Boggart, a household spirit which causes things to disappear, milk to sour, and dogs to go lame
    Soapbox (car), in NW England in the 1950s and 60s
    Bogie (Jack in the green), Jack's attendants in the British folk festival
    Colonel Bogey March, a popular march that was written in 1914
    Bogey (brevity code), a radar or visual air contact whose identity is unknown


Masjid Jamek Background
As the Austro-Hungarian government collapsed, on October 18, 1918, the Ukrainian National Council (Rada), consisting of Ukrainian members of the Austrian parliament and regional Galician and Bukovynan diets as well as leaders of Ukrainian political parties, was formed. The Council announced the intention to unite the West Ukrainian lands into a single state. As the Poles were taking their own steps to take over Lviv and Eastern Galicia, Captain Dmytro Vitovsky of the Sich Riflemen led the group of young Ukrainian officers in a decisive action and during the night of October 31 - November 1, the Ukrainian militarymen took control over Lviv. The West Ukrainian People's Republic was proclaimed on November 1, 1918 with Lviv as its capital. The proclamation of the Republic, which claimed sovereignty over Eastern Galicia, including the Carpathians up to the city of Nowy Sącz in the West, as well as Volhynia, Carpathian Ruthenia and Bukovina was a complete surprise for the Poles. Although the majority of the population of the Western-Ukrainian People's Republic were Ukrainians, large parts of the claimed territory were considered Polish by the Poles. In Lviv the Ukrainian residents enthusiastically supported the proclamation, the city's significant Jewish minority accepted or remained neutral towards the Ukrainian proclamation, while the Polish inhabitants of Lviv (Polish: Lwów) were shocked to find themselves in a proclaimed Ukrainian state.

Polish-Ukrainian War Prelude
In Lviv, the Ukrainian forces were successfully opposed by local self-defence units formed mostly of WWI veterans, students and children. After two weeks of heavy fighting within the city, an armed unit under the command of Lt. Colonel Michał Karaszewicz-Tokarzewski of the renascent Polish Army broke through the Ukrainian siege on November 21 and arrived in the city. The Ukrainians were repelled. However, the Ukrainian forces continued to control most of eastern Galicia and were a threat to Lviv itself until May of 1919. Immediately after recapturing the city, in the end of November, Poles interned a number of Ukrainian activists in detention camps.. The West Ukrainian government controlled the Drohobych oil fields with which it planned to purchase arms for the struggle, but for political and diplomatic reasons weapons and ammunition could only be sent to Ukraine through Czechoslovakia. Although the Ukrainian forces managed to push the Poles back approximately 120 km, they failed to secure a route to Czechoslovakia. This meant that they were unable to replenish their supply of arms and ammunition, and the resulting lack of supplies forced Hrekov to end his campaign.
Józef Piłsudski assumed the command of the Polish forces on June 27 and started yet another offensive. Short of ammunition and outnumbered, the Ukrainians were pushed back to the line of the river Zbrucz.

The War
In contrast to the brutality typical of the struggles occurring in former parts of the Russian empire, the Polish-Ukrainian war was conducted by disciplined and professional forces on both sides, resulting in relatively minimal civilian deaths and destruction. Approximately 10,000 Poles and 15,000 Ukrainians, mostly soldiers, died during this war The government of the West Ukrainian National Republic then disbanded, while Poland reneged on its promise of autonomy for eastern Galicia.



Battle of Lwów (1918)
Lwów Eaglets
Treaty of Riga
Komancza Republic
Romanian Occupation of Pokucie (1919)


In game theory, the stag hunt is a game which describes a conflict between safety and social cooperation. Other names for it or its variants include "assurance game", "coordination game", and "trust dilemma". Jean-Jacques Rousseau described a situation in which two individuals go out on a hunt. Each can individually choose to hunt a stag or hunt a hare. Each player must choose an action without knowing the choice of the other. If an individual hunts a stag, he must have the cooperation of his partner in order to succeed. An individual can get a hare by himself, but a hare is worth less than a stag. This is taken to be an important analogy for social cooperation.
The stag hunt differs from the Prisoner's Dilemma in that the greatest potential payoff is both players cooperating, whereas in the prisoners Dilemma, the greatest payoff is in one player cooperating, and the other defecting.
An example of the payoff matrix for the stag hunt is pictured in Figure 2.

Stag hunt The stag hunt and social cooperation
In addition to the example suggested by Rousseau, David Hume provides a series of examples that are stag hunts. One example addresses two individuals who must row a boat. If both choose to row they can successfully move the boat. However if one doesn't, the other wastes his effort. Hume's second example involves two neighbors wishing to drain a meadow. If they both work to drain it they will be successful, but if either fails to do his part the meadow will not be drained.
There are several animal behaviors that have been described as stag hunts. For example, the coordination of slime molds. In times of stress, individual unicellular protists will aggregate to form one large body. Here if they all act together they can successfully reproduce, however the success depends on the cooperation of many bacteria. Also, the hunting practices of orca (known as carousel feeding) are an example of a stag hunt. Here orcas cooperatively corral large schools of fish to the surface and stun them by hitting them with their tails. Since this requires that fish not have any mechanism for escape, it requires the cooperation of many orcas.


Petrograd Soviet
The Petrograd Soviet, or Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies, was the council set up in Petrograd (Saint Petersburg, Russia) in March 1917 as the representative body of the city's workers.
A workers' soviet had been created in St. Petersburg in 1905, see St. Petersburg Soviet. But the precursor to the 1917 Soviet was the Central Workers' Group (Tsentral'naya Rabochaya GrupaЦентральная Рабочая Група), founded in November 1915 by the Mensheviks to sit between workers and the new Central Military-Industrial Committee in Petrograd. The group became increasingly radical as the war progressed and the economic situation became worse – encouraging street demonstrations and issuing 'revolutionary' proclamations.

The Ispolkom
Existing as an alternate source of authority to Prince Lvov's Provisional Government created a situation described as dvoevlastie (dyarchy or dual power) which lasted from March until the October Revolution. The Ispolkom often publicly attacked the 'bourgeois' Government and boasted of its de facto power over de jure authority (to use a later quote from Trotsky) – it had control over post and telegraphs, the press, railroads, food supply, etc. A 'shadow government' with a Contact Commission (created March 8) to "inform... [the Provisional Government] about the demands of the revolutionary people, to exert pressure on the government to satisfy all these demands, and to exercise uninterrupted control over their implementation." On March 19 the control extended into the military front-lines with commissars appointed, with Ministry of War support.
The Ispolkom expanded to nineteen members on April 8, nine representing the Soldiers' Section and ten the Workers' Section. All members were socialists, the majority Mensheviks or SRs, there were no Bolshevik. After the All-Russian Consultation of Soviets, the Petrograd Soviet began adding representatives from other parts of the nation and the front-lines, renaming itself the All-Russian Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies. The committee became the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (CEC or VTsIK) with over seventy members – including no peasant representatives. The mass meeting of the entire body were tapered off, being reduced from daily in the first weeks to roughly weekly by April.

Petrograd Soviet Riots and street protests
The Bolsheviks rapidly assumed the mantle of the 'official' opposition, while the socialist groups in cabinet could now be attacked for the failures of the Provisional Government. The Bolsheviks began a strong run of propaganda – in June 100,000 copies of Pravda (including Soldatskaya Pravda, Golos Pravdy, and Okopnaya Pravda) were printed daily. In July over 350,000 leaflets were distributed. The Bolsheviks attempted another uprising on July 3July 5 – a further wave of riots without success.
The rise of Kerensky, and the later shock of the Kornilov Affair, polarized the political scene. The Petrograd Soviet moved steadily leftwards just as those of the centre and right consolidated around Kerensky. Despite the events in July the Ispolkom moved to protect the Bolsheviks from serious consequences, adopting resolutions on August 4 and August 18 against the arrest and prosecution of Bolsheviks. Still leery of the Ispolkom the government released many senior Bolsheviks on bail or promise of good behaviour.
In the August 20 municipal elections the Bolsheviks took a third of the votes, a fifty percent increase in three months. There was also a general falling away in the attendance of soviet meetings, indeed many of the smaller soviets no longer existed except on paper.
During the Kornilov Affair the Ispolkom was forced to use the Bolshevik's Military Organization as its main force against the "counter-revolution." Kerensky ordered the distribution of 40,000 rifles to the workers of Petrograd, many of which ended in the hands of Bolshevik groups.
As other socialist parties abandoned the Soviet organizations, the Bolsheviks increased their presence. On September 25 they gained a majority in the Workers' Section and Leon Trotsky was elected chairman. He directed the transformation of the Soviet into an adjunct of the party, bypassing the Menshevik-SR Ispolkom and non-Bolshevik soviets to form a new Bolshevik control structure.
The Bolsheviks used their power in the Petrograd Soviet to set-up a 2nd All-Russian Congress of Soviets on October 20 (agreed September 26), despite only eight of 169 soldiers' or workers' soviets expressing support. With elections to the Constituent Assembly looming the Bolsheviks had to use their power quickly to discredit the elections. The Ispolkom denounced the Congress and the steps the Bolsheviks were taking to create its delegates. Suddenly and without reason, on October 17, the Ispolkom Bureau approved the Congress.


Events of 1991


January 1 - The Colorado Buffaloes claim college football's national championship with a 10-9 win over Notre Dame in the 1991 Orange Bowl. Controversy reigns as Colorado wins the AP poll, but Georgia Tech, the nation's only unbeaten team (with one tie), edges Colorado to win the UPI national championship by one point.
January 4 - The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously to condemn Israel's treatment of the Palestinians.
January 9 - A major collapse of ground traps 26 miners 65m below the surface at the Emaswati Colliery in Swaziland. The 26 men have access to a safe refuge chamber, and are all rescued by a drill hole 30 hours after the rescue unit is first alerted.
January 11 - Soviet forces storm Vilnius to stop Lithuanian independence.
January 12 - Gulf War: The Congress of the United States passes a resolution authorizing the use of military force to liberate Kuwait.
January 13

  • Soviet troops assault the Vilnius TV tower in Lithuania and kill 14 unarmed civilians; many more are injured.
    A fight and stampede at a pre-season exhibition match between South African football teams Chiefs and Pirates in the town of Orkney near Johannesburg, South Africa leaves 42 dead.
    January 14 - Three PLO guerilla chiefs are assassinated in Tunis.
    January 15 - The United Nations deadline for the withdrawal of Iraqi forces from occupied Kuwait expires, preparing the way for the start of Operation Desert Storm.
    January 16

    • U.S. serial killer Aileen Wuornos confesses to the murders of six men.
      Gulf War: Operation Desert Storm begins with air strikes against Iraq.
      January 17

      • Gulf War: Iraq fires 8 Scud missiles into Israel.
        Harald V of Norway becomes King on the death of his father, Olav V.
        January 18 - Eastern Air Lines shuts down after 62 years, citing financial problems.
        January 19 - The Party of the Alliance of Youth, Workers and Farmers of Angola is founded in Luanda, Angola.
        January 25 - The dynasty of the San Francisco 49ers comes to an end as the New York Giants defeat the 49ers, 15-13, in San Francisco. The Giants win despite not scoring a touchdown, prevailing on five field goals by Matt Bahr.
        January 26 - Somalia President Siad Barre flees his compound in Mogadishu.
        January 27 - The New York Giants defeat the Buffalo Bills 20-19 in Super Bowl XXV at Tampa Stadium in Tampa, Florida.
        January 29 - Siad Barre is succeeded by Ali Mahdi Muhammad in Somalia. February

        February 1 - A USAir Boeing 737-300, Flight 1493 collides with a Skywest Fairchild Metroliner, Flight 5569 at Los Angeles International Airport killing 34.
        February 5 - A Michigan court bars Dr. Jack Kevorkian from assisting in suicides.
        February 7

        • Haiti's first democratically-elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, is sworn in.
          The Provisional Irish Republican Army launches a mortar attack on 10 Downing Street during a cabinet meeting.
          February 9 - Voters in Lithuania support independence.
          February 11 - UNPO, the Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organization, forms in the Hague, Netherlands.
          February 13 - Gulf War: Two laser-guided "smart bombs" destroy an underground bunker in Baghdad, killing hundreds of Iraqis. United States military intelligence claimed it was a military facility but Iraqi officials identified it as a bomb shelter.
          February 15 - The Visegrad Agreement, establishing cooperation to move toward free-market systems, is signed by the leaders of Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland.
          February 18 - The Provisional Irish Republican Army explodes bombs in the early morning at both Paddington station and Victoria station in London.
          February 22 - Gulf War: Iraq accepts a Russian-proposed cease fire agreement. The U.S. rejects the agreement, but said that retreating Iraqi forces would not be attacked if they left Kuwait within 24 hours.
          February 23

          • The One Meridian Plaza fire kills three firefighters and destroys 8 floors of the building.
            Gulf War: Ground troops cross the Saudi Arabian border and enter Kuwait, thus starting the ground phase of the war.
            February 23 - In Thailand, General Sunthorn Kongsompong deposes Prime Minister Chatichai Choonhavan in a bloodless coup d'état.
            February 25 - Gulf War: Part of an Iraqi Scud missile hits an American military barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia killing 29 and injuring 99 U.S. soldiers. It is the single, most devastating attack on U.S. forces during that war.
            February 26 - Gulf War: On Baghdad radio, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein announces the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait. Iraqi soldiers set fire to Kuwaiti oil fields as they retreat. March

            March-April - Iraqi forces suppress rebellions in the southern and northern parts of the country, creating a humanitarian disaster on the borders of Turkey and Iran.
            March 1

            • The ballistic missile submarine USS-ex-Sam Houston SSBN-609 is deactivated.
              Clayton Keith Yeutter finishes as the United States Secretary of Agriculture.
              March 3

              • An amateur video captures the beating of Rodney King by Los Angeles, California police officers.
                Latvia and Estonia vote for independence from the Soviet Union.
                March 9 - Massive demonstrations are held against Slobodan Milošević in Belgrade; 2 people are killed and tanks are in the streets.
                March 10 - Gulf War: Operation Phase Echo - 540,000 American troops begin to leave the Persian Gulf.
                March 11 - A curfew is imposed on black townships in South Africa after fighting between rival political gangs kills 49.
                March 13 - The United States Department of Justice announces that Exxon has agreed to pay $1 billion for the clean-up of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska.
                March 14 - After 16 years in prison for allegedly bombing a pub in an Irish Republican Army attack, the "Birmingham Six" are freed when a court determines that the police fabricated evidence.
                March 15

                • Four Los Angeles, California police officers are indicted for the videotaped March 3 beating of motorist Rodney King during an arrest.
                  Germany formally regains complete independence after the 4 post-World War II occupying powers (France, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union) relinquish all remaining rights.
                  March 30 - Northern Michigan University wins the NCAA Division I title in hockey, 8-7 in the third overtime against Boston University.
                  March 31 - Albania has its first multi-party elections. April

                  April 3 - Iraq disarmament crisis: The U.N. Security Council passes the Cease Fire Agreement, Resolution 687. The resolution calls for the destruction or removal of all of Iraq's chemical and biological weapons, all stocks of agents and components, and all research, development, support and manufacturing facilities for ballistic missiles with a range greater than 150km and production facilities; and for an end to its support for international terrorism. Iraq accepts the terms of the resolution on April 6.
                  April 4

                  • Senator John Heinz of Pennsylvania and six others are killed when a helicopter collides with their plane over Merion, Pennsylvania.
                    William Kennedy Smith, a nephew of U.S. Senator Edward Kennedy, is identified as a suspect in an alleged Palm Beach, Florida sexual assault.
                    April 5 - Former Senator John Tower and 22 others are killed in an airplane crash in Brunswick, Georgia, United States.
                    April 9 - The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia declares independence.
                    April 10

                    • A South Atlantic tropical cyclone develops in the Southern Hemisphere off the coast of Angola (the first of its kind to be documented by weather satellites).
                      Italian ferry Moby Prince collides with an oil tanker in dense fog off Livorno, Italy killing 140.
                      April 14 - In the Netherlands, thieves steal 20 paintings worth $500 million from the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam. Less than an hour later they are found in an abandoned car near the museum.
                      April 17 - After approaching 3,000 in July 1990, the Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 3,000 for the first time ever, at 3,004.46.
                      April 18 - Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraq declares some of its chemical weapons and materials to the UN, as required by Resolution 687, and claims that it does not have a biological weapons program.
                      April 26 - Seventy tornadoes break out in the central United States, killing 17. The most notable tornado of the day strikes Andover, Kansas. (see Andover, Kansas Tornado Outbreak)
                      April 29 - A tropical cyclone hits Bangladesh, killing an estimated 138,000 people. May

                      May 15 - Édith Cresson becomes France's first female premier.
                      May 16 - Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom gives a speech to the U.S. Congress.
                      May 21 - In Madras, India, former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi is assassinated.
                      May 24 - Authorised by Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, Operation Solomon commences.
                      May 26 - In Thailand, a Lauda Air Boeing 767 crashes near Bangkok, killing all 223 people on-board.
                      May 28 - The Pittsburgh Penguins defeat the Minnesota North Stars 8-0 in Game 6 to win their first Stanley Cup in franchise history.
                      May 29 - In Bari, Red Star Belgrade, Beograd wins Champions Cup in Football. June

                      June 3 - Mount Unzen erupts, killing 43 people as a result of pyroclastic flow (the victims are all either volcanologists or journalists).
                      June 9 - A major collapse of ground at the Emaswati Colliery in Swaziland traps 26 miners 65m below the surface. The men have access to a safe refuge chamber and are all rescued by a drill hole 30 hours after the rescue unit was first alerted.
                      June 12 - Boris Yeltsin is elected President of Russia, the largest and most populous of the fifteen Soviet republics.
                      June 12 - The Chicago Bulls win their 1st NBA championship by defeating the Los Angeles Lakers in the best-of-7 series 4 games to 1.
                      June 13 - A spectator is killed by lightning at the U.S. Open.
                      June 15 - Mount Pinatubo erupts in the Philippines.
                      June 17 - Apartheid: The South African Parliament repeals the Population Registration Act, which had required racial classification of all South Africans at birth.
                      June 17 - U.S. President Zachary Taylor is exhumed to discover whether or not his death was caused by arsenic poisoning, instead of acute gastrointestinal illness; no trace of arsenic is found.
                      June 23-June 28 - Iraq disarmament crisis: U.N. inspection teams attempt to intercept Iraqi vehicles carrying nuclear related equipment. Iraqi soldiers fire warning shots in the air to prevent inspectors from approaching the vehicles.
                      June 25 - Croatia and Slovenia declare their independence from Yugoslavia.
                      June 30 - Portugal wins the FIFA U-20 World Cup defeating Brazil on the final by 4-2, after penalty shoot out, in Lisbon, Portugal. July

                      July 1 - The Warsaw Pact is officially dissolved at a meeting in Prague.
                      July 7 - The Brioni Agreement ends the 10-day war in Slovenia.
                      July 10 - Boris Yeltsin begins his 5-year term as the first elected president of Russia.
                      July 22 - Boxer Mike Tyson is arrested and charged with raping Miss Black America contestant Desiree Washington, 3 days earlier, in Indianapolis, Indiana.
                      July 23 - James Farentino of Dynasty arrested in Canada for cocaine possession.
                      July 22 - Serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer is arrested after the remains of 11 men and boys are found in his Milwaukee, Wisconsin apartment. They soon found out that he is involved in 6 more murders.
                      July 24 - The government of India announces its New Industrial Policy, marking the start of India's economic reforms.
                      July 26 - Actor Paul Reubens (aka Pee-wee Herman) is arrested in a Sarasota, Florida theater for publicly masturbating. August

                      August 6 - Tim Berners-Lee releases files describing his idea for the "World Wide Web."
                      August 7 - Shapour Bakhtiar, former prime minister of Iran, is assassinated.
                      August 8 - The Warsaw radio mast, the tallest construction ever built, collapses.
                      August 13 - The Super Nintendo Entertainment System is released in the United States.
                      August 17 - Strathfield Massacre: In Sydney, Australia, taxi driver Wade Frankum shoots 7 people and injures 6 others before turning the gun on himself.
                      August 19 - Collapse of the Soviet Union: Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev is put under house arrest while vacationing in the Crimea during a coup. The attempted coup, led by Vice President Gennady Yanayev and 7 hard-liners, collapses in less than 72 hours.
                      August 20 - Collapse of the Soviet Union: Estonia declares its independence from the Soviet Union, and more than 100,000 people rally outside the Soviet Union's parliament building protesting the coup that deposed President Mikhail Gorbachev.
                      August 21 - Collapse of the Soviet Union: Latvia declares its independence from the Soviet Union.
                      August 24 - Collapse of the Soviet Union: Ukraine declares independence from Soviet Union.
                      August 25

                      • Student Linus Torvalds posts messages to a Usenet newsgroup comp.os.minix about the new operating system kernel he has been developing.
                        Michael Schumacher makes his Formula 1 debut in the Belgian Grand Prix.
                        August 27 - Collapse of the Soviet Union: Moldova declares independence from the Soviet Union.
                        August 29 - Maronite general Michel Aoun leaves Lebanon via a French ship into exile.
                        August 31 - Collapse of the Soviet Union: Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan declare independence from the Soviet Union. September

                        September 2 - The United States recognizes the independence of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
                        September 3 - In Hamlet, North Carolina, a grease fire breaks out at the Imperial Foods chicken processing plant, killing 25 people.
                        September 5-September 7 - At the 35th Annual Tailhook Symposium in Las Vegas, 83 women and 7 men are assaulted.
                        September 6

                        • The Soviet Union recognizes the independence of the Baltic States.
                          The name Saint Petersburg is restored to Russia's second-largest city, which had been renamed Leningrad in 1924.
                          September 8 - The Republic of Macedonia becomes independent.
                          September 20-September 21 - In Sandy, Utah several patients are held hostage and a nurse is killed in the Alta View Hospital hostage incident.
                          September 21 - Armenia declares independence from the Soviet Union.
                          September 21-September 30 - Iraq disarmament crisis: IAEA inspectors discover files on Iraq's hidden nuclear weapons program. Iraqi officials confiscate documents from UN weapons inspectors, refusing to allow them to leave the site without turning over other documents. A 4-day standoff ensues. Iraq permits the team to leave with the documents after the UN Security Council threatens enforcement actions.
                          September 22 - The Huntington Library makes the Dead Sea Scrolls available to the public for the first time.
                          September 29 - Josh Layton, Son of Roger Layton, Co-founder of GoFetch Media and creator of the Mbrwiz is born.
                          September 30 - Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is removed from power. March 1991 October

                          October 2 - Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton announces he will seek the 1992 Democratic nomination for President of the United States.
                          October 8 - The Croatian Parliament cuts all remaining ties with Yugoslavia.
                          October 11

                          • In Russia, the KGB is replaced by the SVR.
                            Iraq disarmament crisis: The U.N. Security Council passes Resolution 715, which demands that Iraq "accept unconditionally the inspectors and all other personnel designated by the Special Commission". Iraq rejects the resolution, calling it "unlawful".
                            October 11-October 13 - The U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee interviews both Supreme Court candidate Clarence Thomas and former aide Anita Hill, who alleges that Thomas sexually harassed her while she worked for him.
                            October 12 - Askar Akayev, previously chosen President of Kyrgyzstan by its Supreme Soviet, is confirmed president in an uncontested poll.
                            October 14 - Bulgarians celebrate the end of the rule of the Communist Party.
                            October 15 - After a bitter confirmation hearing, including sexual misconduct allegations by former aide Anita Hill, the United States Senate votes 52-48 to confirm Judge Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court of the United States.
                            October 16 - George Hennard guns down 24 people in Killeen, Texas before killing himself.
                            October 20

                            • The Oakland Hills firestorm kills 25 and destroys 3,469 homes and apartments.
                              The Harare Declaration lays down the membership criteria for the Commonwealth of Nations.
                              October 27

                              • The first free parliamentary elections are held in Poland.
                                Turkmenistan declares its independence from the USSR.
                                The Minnesota Twins win the World Series.
                                October 29 - The American Galileo spacecraft makes its closest approach to 951 Gaspra, becoming the first probe to visit an asteroid. November

                                November 2 - Australia beats England 12-6 at Twickenham Stadium to lift the Rugby World Cup.
                                November 5

                                • The body of publishing tycoon Robert Maxwell is found floating in the Atlantic Ocean (he had fallen off his yacht near the Canary Islands).
                                  David Duke, a white supremacist running as a Republican, loses the Louisiana Governor's race to Democratic candidate Edwin Edwards, by an overwhelming margin.
                                  November 6 - The KGB officially stops operations.
                                  November 7

                                  • Los Angeles Lakers point guard Magic Johnson announces that he has HIV, effectively ending his career in the NBA.
                                    The last oil well fire is put out in Kuwait.
                                    The first report on Carbon nanotubes is published by Sumio Iijima in the journal Nature.
                                    November 9 - JET fusion reactor generated 1.5 MW output power.
                                    November 14

                                    • American and British authorities announce indictments against 2 Libyan intelligence officials, in connection with the downing of the Pan Am Flight 103.
                                      Cambodian Prince Norodom Sihanouk returns to Phnom Penh after 13 years of exile.
                                      November 18

                                      • Shiite Muslim kidnappers in Lebanon set Anglican Church envoys Terry Waite and Thomas Sutherland free.
                                        Serb troops take Vukovar after a 87-day siege and commit the worst massacre in Croatia.
                                        November 27 - The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopts a resolution opening the way to the establishment of peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia.
                                        November 29 - The Federal Yugoslavian Army begins to withdraw from Zagreb. December

                                        December 1 - Collapse of the Soviet Union: Ukrainians vote overwhelmingly for independence from the Soviet Union in a referendum.
                                        December 4

                                        • Journalist Terry Anderson is released after 7 years' captivity as a hostage in Beirut (he was the last and longest-held American hostage in Lebanon).
                                          Pan American World Airways ends operations.
                                          December 8

                                          • Leaders of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine meet and sign an agreement ending the Soviet Union and establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), in the Belovezhskaya Pushcha Nature Reserve in Belarus.
                                            A referendum on the constitution of Romania is accepted as valid.
                                            December 12 - The Russian SFSR ceases to be a part of the Soviet Union.
                                            December 15 - The Egyptian ferry Salem Express sinks in the Red Sea, killing more than 450.
                                            December 19 - Paul Keating replaces Bob Hawke as the new prime minister of Australia.
                                            December 20 - A Missouri court passes the death sentence on Palestinian militant Zein Isa and his wife Maria for the honor killing of their daughter Palestina.
                                            December 22 - One month after Freddie Mercury's death, Queen's re-release of Bohemian Rhapsody returns to the top of the British singles charts, 16 years after the original version.
                                            December 25 - Mikhail Gorbachev resigns as president of the Soviet Union, from which most republics have already disbanded; the 73-year-old state is now expected to dissolve completely.
                                            December 26 - The Supreme Soviet meets and formally dissolves the Soviet Union.
                                            December 31 - The Soviet Union officially ceases to exist. Undated

                                            University of South Australia is founded.
                                            Impostor James Hogue exposed in Princeton University
                                            Winter - Centennial of Basketball.
                                            Ely Petrol Riots.
                                            International Year of Tibet. Ongoing

                                            Cold War. Births


                                            January 15 - Rubab Raza, Pakistan swimmer
                                            January 16 - Julie Dubela, American singer
                                            January 19 - Erin Sanders, American actress
                                            January 21 - Paige and Ryanne Kettner, American actresses
                                            January 21 - Brittany Tiplady, Canadian actress
                                            February 10 - Emma Roberts, American actress
                                            February 16 - Princess Alexandra of Luxembourg
                                            February 17 - Bonnie Wright, English actress
                                            February 18 - Malese Jow, American actress
                                            March 3 - Victor Elias, Spaniard actor and singer
                                            March 4 - Diandra Newlin, American actress, singer, and model
                                            March 8 - Devon Werkheiser, American actor
                                            March 16 - Wolfgang Van Halen, American musician
                                            March 18 - Gage Guinn, American actor
                                            March 23 - George William Carnegie, British noble
                                            March 26 - Brittney Wilson, Canadian actress
                                            March 28 - Amy Bruckner, American actress
                                            April 4 - Jamie Lynn Spears, American actress
                                            April 10 - Amanda Michalka, American singer and actress
                                            April 10 - Sergiusz Żymełka, Polish actor
                                            April 20 - Thomas Curtis, American actor
                                            April 27 - Rebecca Ryan, British actress May - August

                                            May 17 - Daniel Curtis Lee, American actor
                                            May 19 - Jordan Pruitt, American singer
                                            May 21 - Sarah Ramos, American actress
                                            May 24 - Erika Umeda, Japanese Singer
                                            May 26 - Julianna Rose Mauriello, American stage actress
                                            May 29 - Kristen Alderson, American actress
                                            June 4 - Jordan Hinson, American actress
                                            June 7 - Chris Sawyer, English footballer
                                            June 18 - Willa Holland, American model and actress
                                            June 27 - Madylin Sweeten, American actress
                                            July 5 - Jason Dolley, American actor
                                            July 6 - Victoire Thivisol, French actress
                                            July 7 - Devon Alan, American actor
                                            July 9 - Mitchel Musso, American actor
                                            July 10- Maeda Atsuko, Japanese Singer
                                            July 12 - Erik Per Sullivan, American actor
                                            July 14 - Lewis McGibbon, British actor
                                            July 20 - William Tomlin, British actor
                                            July 29 - Miki Ishikawa, American actress and singer
                                            August 15 - Abdus Ibrahim, American footballer
                                            August 16 - Evanna Lynch, Irish actress
                                            August 16 - Sarah-Jeanne Labrosse, Canadian actress
                                            August 21 - Tess Gaerthé, Dutch singer and actress
                                            August 28 - Kyle Massey, American actor March 1991 September - December
                                            For more musicians born in 1991, see 1991 in music.

                                            September 4 - Carter Jenkins, American actor
                                            September 5 - Skandar Keynes, British actor
                                            September 12 - Kristin Klabunde, American actress
                                            September 21 - Zoe Weizenbaum, American actress
                                            September 25 - Emmy Clarke, American actress
                                            October 4 - Nicolai Kielstrup, Netherlandian singer
                                            October 19 - Christopher Gerse, American actor
                                            October 31 - Jordan-Claire Green, American actress
                                            November 6 - Camila Finn, Brazilian model
                                            November 11 - Christa B. Allen, American actress
                                            November 30 - Carnell Breeding, American singer
                                            December 9 - Prince Joachim, Archduke of Austria-Este, Belgian prince
                                            December 12 - Daniel Magder, Canadian actor
                                            December 13 - Jay Greenberg, American music composer
                                            December 19 - Declan Galbraith, British singer Deaths

                                            January - June

                                            January 5 - Vasko Popa, Yugoslavian poet (b. 1922)
                                            January 8 - Steve Clark, English guitarist (Def Leppard) (b. 1960)
                                            January 11 - Carl David Anderson, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1905)
                                            January 17 - King Olav V of Norway (b. 1903)
                                            January 29

                                            • Yasushi Inoue, Japanese historian (b. 1907)
                                              John McIntire, American actor (b. 1907)
                                              January 30 - John Bardeen, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1908)
                                              February 2 - Pete Axthelm, sportswriter (b. 1943)
                                              February 5 - Dean Jagger, American actor (b. 1903)
                                              February 6

                                              • Salvador Luria, Italian-born biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1912)
                                                Danny Thomas, American singer, comedian, and actor (b. 1914)
                                                February 7 - Amos Yarkoni, legendary Israeli soldier (b. 1920)
                                                February 14 - John McCone, American Central Intelligence Agency director (b. 1902)
                                                February 21

                                                • John Sherman Cooper, a U.S. Republican senator
                                                  Margot Fonteyn, English ballet dancer (b. 1919)
                                                  February 24

                                                  • John Charles Daly, South African-born journalist and game show host (b. 1914)
                                                    George Gobel, American comedian (b. 1919)
                                                    March 1 - Edwin Land, inventor of the Polaroid™ instant camera (b. 1909)
                                                    March 2 - Serge Gainsbourg, French singer (b. 1928)
                                                    March 3 - Arthur Murray, American dancer and dance instructor (b. 1895)
                                                    March 12 - Ragnar Granit, Finnish neuroscientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1900)
                                                    March 14

                                                    • Howard Ashman, American lyricist (b. 1950)
                                                      Doc Pomus, American composer (b. 1925)
                                                      March 21 - Leo Fender, instrument maker (b. 1909)
                                                      March 25 - Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, Roman Catholic bishop who fought for Catholic Tradition (b. 1905)
                                                      March 29 - Lee Atwater, American Presidential advisor (b. 1951)
                                                      April 1 - Martha Graham, American dancer and choreographer (b. 1894)
                                                      April 3

                                                      • Charles Goren, American bridge player, writer, and columnist (b. 1901)
                                                        Graham Greene, English writer (b. 1904)
                                                        April 4

                                                        • Max Frisch, Swiss writer (b. 1911)
                                                          H. John Heinz III, U.S. Senator (plane crash) (b. 1938)
                                                          Forrest Towns, American runner (b. 1914)
                                                          Edmund Adamkiewicz, German footballer (b. 1920)
                                                          April 5 - John Tower, former Republican Senator from Texas (b. 1929)
                                                          April 8 - Per "Dead" Yngve Ohlin, vocalist for Mayhem/Morbid (suicide) (b. 1969)
                                                          April 10 - Natalie Schafer, American actress (b. 1900)
                                                          April 19 - Stanley Hawes, British-born Australian film producer, director and administrator (b. 1905)
                                                          April 20 - Steve Marriott English musician (house fire) (b.1947)
                                                          April 26 - Carmine Coppola, American composer and conductor (b. 1910)
                                                          April 28

                                                          • Ken Curtis, American actor (b. 1916)
                                                            Johnny Eck, American sideshow performer (b. 1911)
                                                            May 8

                                                            • Jean Langlais, French composer and organist (b. 1907)
                                                              Rudolf Serkin, Austrian pianist (b. 1903)
                                                              May 14 - Jiang Qing, Chinese radical revolutionary (b. 1914)
                                                              May 15 - Andreas Floer, German mathematician (b. 1956)
                                                              May 21 - Rajiv Gandhi, Prime Minister of India (b. 1944)
                                                              May 22 - Derrick Henry Lehmer, American mathematician (b. 1905)
                                                              May 24 - Wilhelm Kempff, German pianist (b. 1895)
                                                              May 27 - Leopold Nowak, Austrian musicologist (b. 1904)
                                                              June 1 - David Ruffin, American singer, The Temptations
                                                              June 5 - Sylvia Field Porter, American economist and journalist (b. 1913)
                                                              June 9 - Claudio Arrau, Chilean-born pianist (b. 1903)
                                                              June 11 - Cromwell Everson, South African composer (b. 1925)
                                                              June 14 - Peggy Ashcroft, British actress (b. 1907)
                                                              June 15 - Arthur Lewis, British economist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1915) July - December

                                                              July 1 - Michael Landon, American actor (b. 1936)
                                                              July 4 - Victor Chang, Australian physician (murdered) (b. 1936)
                                                              July 15 - Bert Convy, American game show host, actor, and singer (brain tumor) (b. 1933)
                                                              July 16 - Robert Motherwell, American painter (b. 1915)
                                                              July 18 - André Cools, Belgian politician (assassinated) (b. 1927)
                                                              July 24 - Isaac Bashevis Singer, Polish-born Yiddish writer, Nobel Prize laureate
                                                              July 31 - Baudouin I, King of the Belgians (b. 1930)
                                                              August 1 - [[Chris Short, American baseball pitcher (b. 1937)
                                                              August 3 - Ali Sabri, Prime Minister of Egypt
                                                              August 4 - Evgeny Dragunov, Russian weapons designer (b. 1920)
                                                              August 5 - Paul Brown, American football coach (b. 1908)
                                                              August 8 - James Irwin, astronaut (b. 1930)
                                                              August 11 - J. D. McDuffie, American race car driver (b. 1938)
                                                              August 13 - James Roosevelt, American businessman and politician (b. 1907)
                                                              August 14 - Richard A. Snelling, Governor of Vermont (b. 1927)
                                                              August 30 - Jean Tinguely, Swiss painter and sculptor (b. 1925)
                                                              August 30 - Cyril Knowles, English footballer and manager (b. 1944)
                                                              September 2 - Alfonso García Robles, Mexican diplomat and politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1911)
                                                              September 3 - Dottie West, famous country music singer (b. 1932)
                                                              September 3 - Frank Capra, Italian-born film director (b. 1897)
                                                              September 7 - Edwin McMillan, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1907)
                                                              September 8 - Brad Davis, American actor (AIDS) (b. 1949)
                                                              September 17 - Zino Francescatti, French violinist (b. 1902)
                                                              September 24 - Dr. Seuss, American children's author (b. 1904)
                                                              September 28 - Miles Davis, American jazz trumpeter (b. 1926)
                                                              October 6 - Igor Talkov, Russian singer, poet and composer, author of many anti-soviet songs (b. 1956)
                                                              October 11 - Redd Foxx, American comedian and star of the television show Sanford and Son (b. 1922)
                                                              October 17 - Tennessee Ernie Ford, American singer (b. 1919)
                                                              October 22 - Leonora Knatchbull, daughter of Lord Romsey (b. 1986)
                                                              October 24 - Gene Roddenberry, American television producer, creator of Star Trek (b. 1921)
                                                              November 5 - Robert Maxwell, Slovakian-born media entrepreneur (b. 1923)
                                                              November 18 - Gustáv Husák, Czechoslovakian president (b. 1913)
                                                              November 24 - Eric Carr, American drummer (Kiss) (b. 1950)
                                                              November 24 - Freddie Mercury, Zanzibar-born singer (Queen) (b. 1946)
                                                              December 1 - George Joseph Stigler, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1911)
                                                              December 6 - Richard Stone, British economist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1913)
                                                              December 10 - Greta Kempton, American artist (b. 1901)
                                                              December 15 - Vasily Zaitsev, Russian World War II hero (b. 1915)
                                                              December 16 - Horatio Luro, Argentine-born racehorse trainer (b. 1901)
                                                              December 18 - George Abecassis, English race car driver (b. 1913) Ship events

                                                              List of ship decommissionings in 1991
                                                              List of shipwrecks in 1991 See also

                                                              20th century