John Marwood Cleese (born 27 October 1939) is an Academy Award-nominated and Emmy Award winning English comedian and actor. He is best known for being one of the founding members of the renowned comedy group Monty Python, and as the writer and star of the popular television comedy Fawlty Towers.
He has won BAFTA and Emmy awards, and was an Academy Award nominated screen writer for his film, A Fish Called Wanda.

John Cleese Biography
Cleese was born in Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, England to Reginald Francis Cleese and Muriel (Cross). His family's surname was previously "Cheese", but his father, an insurance salesman, changed his surname to "Cleese" upon joining the army in 1915.

Early life
After his return to England, Cleese started performing as a cast member of the highly successful BBC Radio show I'm Sorry, I'll Read That Again, which ran from 1965 to 1974.
The first series began on 19 September 1975, and whilst not an instant hit, soon gained momentum. However, the second series did not appear until 1979, by which time Cleese's marriage to Booth had broken down. Despite this the two reprised their writing and performing roles in the second series. Fawlty Towers consisted of only twelve episodes. Cleese and Booth both maintain that this was to avoid compromising the quality of the series.
In 1978, Cleese appeared as guest star on The Muppet Show. Instead of singing along, he showed up a pretend album, his own new vocal record "John Cleese: A Man & His Music", and finally strangled Kermit the Frog. Cleese won the TV Times award for Funniest Man On TV - 1978 / 1979. He was the first person ever to say 'shit' on British Television.
The city of Palmerston North in New Zealand christened a trash heap at the city's local dump Mt. Cleese in response to Cleese's coments about the city being a "suicide capital of New Zealand". Palmerston North has a normal suicide rate.

John Cleese Career
During the 1980s and 1990s, Cleese focused on film, though he did work with Peter Cook in his one-off TV special Peter Cook and Co. in 1980. In the same year a theatrical piece for TV was released, with Cleese playing Petruchio, in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. He also rejoined the Pythons for Monty Python Live at the Hollywood Bowl (1982), and starred in The Secret Policeman's Ball for Amnesty International. He married Barbara Trentham on 15 February 1981. Their daughter Camilla Cleese was born in 1984.
In 1988 he wrote and starred in A Fish Called Wanda, as the lead, Archie Leach, along with Jamie Lee Curtis, Kevin Kline and fellow Python Michael Palin. Wanda became the most successful British film ever, and Cleese was nominated for an Academy Award for his script. Cynthia Cleese starred as Leach's daughter.
However, his marriage was in trouble and in 1990 he and Trentham divorced. On 28 December 1992 he married Alyce Faye Eichelberger, his third blonde American actress wife.
Cleese's Monty Python writing partner and friend, Graham Chapman, was diagnosed with throat cancer in 1989, and during his final hours, Cleese, along with Michael Palin, Peter Cook and David Sherlock, witnessed Chapman's passing. Chapman's death occurred one day before the 20th anniversary of the first broadcast of Flying Circus with Jones commenting, "the worst case of party-pooping in all history." Cleese gave a stirring eulogy at Graham Chapman's memorial service, in which he "became the first person ever at a British memorial service to say 'fuck'". This was an erroneous story, the result of an interview with The Times of London (the piece was not fact checked before printing).
In 2007, Cleese is appearing in ads for Titleist as a fictional (and miffed) golf course designer named "Ian MacCallister", who represents the equally fictional organization, "Golf Designers Against Distance".

Later career
John Cleese's most recent live comedic performance was at the 2006 Just For Laughs festival in Montreal, Canada. John Cleese was host for one of the galas and performed sketches very reminiscent to his Monty Python days. His first sketch was him performing his own eulogy as he promised to kill himself as the grand finale, remarking "Top that Jason Alexander...you bastard." The second sketch was him as the judge of 'Cleese Idol', where contestants from Montreal would be performing his skits, so he could find his successor. He shot the last contestant as well as the special guest host, Ben Mulroney (the host of Canadian Idol). The gala ended with his 'execution', where he asked people to choose the method of execution by text messaging a number (which was fake). The choices were stoning, electric chair, firing squad, hanging and guillotine. The guillotine won, and John Cleese was beheaded just as he was about to say something to the crowd.

Just For Laughs 2006

A species of lemur, Avahi cleesei, has been named in his honour. John Cleese mentioned this in television interviews. Also there is mention of this honour in "The New Scientist"
An asteroid, 9618 Johncleese, is named in his honour.
In the BBC documentary series, "The Human Face", it is claimed that Cleese is a Professor-At-Large at Cornell University, and that he is a best-selling author on psychology. Honours and tributes

I'm Sorry, I'll Read That Again Radio credits

The Frost Report (1966)
Frost on Sunday
At Last the 1948 Show
The Avengers (1968, guest appearance as Marcus Rugman (egg clown-face collector) in the episode Look (Stop Me if You've Heard this One)...)
The Goodies (1973, guest cameo appearance as a Genie in the episode The Goodies and the Beanstalk).
Doctor Who (1979, guest cameo appearance as an Art Lover in the episode City of Death as a favour to writer / script editor Douglas Adams)
How to Irritate People (1968) with Michael Palin, Graham Chapman, Connie Booth and Tim Brooke-Taylor
Monty Python's Flying Circus (1969–1974)
Fawlty Towers (1975, 1979)
The Taming of the Shrew, as Petruchio (1980)
Cheers (episode "Simon Says"), he won an Emmy Award for best actor in a guest starring role (1987).
3rd Rock from the Sun (1998–2001) as recurring character Dr. Liam Neesam.
The Human Face (2001) Cleese was the host of this 4 episode BBC documentary. It also featured Michael Palin, Elizabeth Hurley, David Attenborough, Pierce Brosnan, Paul Ekman, and Dacher Keltner, among others.
Wednesday 9:30 (8:30 Central) (2002) as Red
Will & Grace (2003-2004) as recurring character Lyle Finster.
Monty Python's Flying Circus, John Cleese's Personal Best (At the beginning of the episode, the show was dedicated to "Mr. John Cleese, who has recently died". A lot of Monty Python fans were saddened for his demise. It turned out it was just part of a skit; John Cleese was portraying himself as a 97-year-old, senile, old man who is being interviewed by a newswoman before succumbing to a heart attack.)
Hosted the TV show Wine for the Confused
Numerous commercials, including for supermarket chain Sainsbury's, snack firm Planters and a British government Stop Smoking campaign
Party political broadcasts for the Liberal Democrats and predecessor, the SDP-Liberal Alliance
Song "Don't Mention The World Cup" animated video played on ITV, BBC and Channel 4 News June 2006
Host of the PBS series The Human Face (2007) Television credits
Video game credits

Interlude (1968)
The Magic Christian (1969) (had written w/ Chapman an earlier version of the script, of which only the scenes they appear in survived)
The Best House in London (1969)
The Rise and Rise of Michael Rimmer (1970) (writer and actor)
And Now for Something Completely Different (1971) (writer and actor)
Romance with a Double Bass (1974) (writer and actor)
Monty Python and the Holy Grail (1974) (writer and actor: Sir Lancelot, Tim the Enchanter, swallow obsessed guard #2, Peasant #1, the Black Knight, French Taunter, body cart customer)
Meetings, Bloody Meetings (1976) (a humorous business-oriented training video)
The Strange Case of the End of Civilization as We Know It (1977) (Arthur Sherlock Holmes, a descendant of the original)
Monty Python's Life of Brian (1979) (writer and actor: various roles including Reg)
The Secret Policeman's Ball (1980)
The Great Muppet Caper (1981)
Time Bandits (1981) (as a gormless Robin Hood)
Privates on Parade (1982) (Major Giles Flack)
Yellowbeard (1983) (Blind Pew)
Monty Python's The Meaning of Life (1983) (writer and actor) (various roles)
Silverado (1985) (plays Langston an English sheriff in a town in the western USA. His first line, as he walks in to a bar to break up a brawl, is, "What's all this, then?")
Clockwise (1986) (as Mr. Stimpson, a school headmaster)
A Fish Called Wanda (1988) (writer and actor) (as lawyer Archie Leach (Cary Grant's real name))
Erik the Viking (1989) (as Halfdan the Black)
Bullseye! (1990) (as Man on the Beach in Barbados Who Looks Like John Cleese)
An American Tail: Fievel Goes West (1991) (Cat R. Waul)
Splitting Heirs (1993) (Raoul P. Shadgrind)
Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1994)
Disney's Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book (1994) (Dr. Julien Plumford)
The Swan Princess (1994) (Jean-Bob)
The Wind in the Willows (1996) (as Mr. Toad's lawyer)
Fierce Creatures (1996) (as Rollo Lee, manager of an English zoo; the novelization suggests that he is actually the twin brother of Archie Leach from A Fish Called Wanda, with a slight change of surname)
George of the Jungle (1997) (as the voice of an ape named Ape)
The Out-of-Towners (1999 film) (1999) (as Mr. Mersault, the hotel manager)
The World Is Not Enough (1999) (a James Bond film) (as Q's assistant, nicknamed R by Bond)
Isn't She Great (2000)
Quantum Project (2001) (as father of Stephen Dorff's character)
Here's Looking at You: The Evolution of the Human Face narrator
Rat Race (2001) (as eccentric millionaire Donald P. Sinclair)
Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (2001) ("Nearly Headless Nick")
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (2002) ("Nearly Headless Nick")
Die Another Day (2002) (second appearance in a James Bond film; replaces Desmond Llewelyn as Q in the series)
Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle (2003) (Father of Alex)
Scorched (2003) (Local Millionaire)
George of the Jungle 2 (2003) (as the voice of an ape named Ape)
Shrek 2 (2004) (voice of Princess Fiona's father, King Harold)
Around the World in 80 Days (2004) (Grizzled Sergeant)
Valiant (2005) (voice of captured pigeon, Mercury)
Charlotte's Web (2006) (voice of Samuel the sheep)
Shrek the Third (2007) (King Harold)
Crood Awakening (2008) (Alvan) Voice (also writer)
Pink Panther 2 (2008) (Insp. Dreyfus)
Monty Python's Complete Waste of Time (1994) 7th Level
Monty Python & the Quest for the Holy Grail (1996) 7th Level
Monty Python's The Meaning of Life (1997) Panasonic
Starship Titanic (1998) Simon & Schuster Interactive (voice of the Bomb) — (Credited as Kim Bread)
007 Racing (2000) Electronic Arts
The World Is Not Enough (video game) (2000) Electronic Arts
Everything or Nothing (video game) (2004) Electronic Arts
Trivial Pursuit: Unhinged (2004) Atari
Jade Empire (2005) BioWare (as Sir Roderick Ponce von Fontlebottom the Magnificent Bastard) Filmography

In 2003, John Cleese took part in Mike Oldfield's re-recording of the 1973 hit Tubular Bells, Tubular Bells 2003. He took over the "Master of Ceremonies" duties in the 'Finale' part, in which he announced the various instruments eccentrically, from the late Vivian Stanshall.
Cleese recorded the voice of God for Spamalot, the musical based on Monty Python and the Holy Grail.
In an episode of Will & Grace, he referred to the maid character, Rosario, as Manuel, a homage to his previous television show Fawlty Towers.
Cleese narrated the audio version of C. S. Lewis's The Screwtape Letters.
In the late-1990s Cleese appeared in a set of poorly-received commercials for the UK supermarket chain Sainsbury's. Around the same time, his Fawlty Towers co-star, Prunella Scales, appeared in more well-received commercials for rival chain Tesco.
He has enunciated a very welcome set of directions for the TomTom in-car navigation system. This allows itself humorous notes at non-critical moments, for instance when asking for a U-turn and when signing off: "I'm not going to carry your baggage — from now on, you're on your own".
He plays the voice of Samuel the Sheep in the 2006 adaption of Charlotte's Web. Samuel keeps on telling the other sheep to be individuals, not sheep. This is a reference to Monty Python's Life of Brian.
He has a speaking part at the end of the Alan Parsons song "Chomolungma" from the album A Valid Path. Other credits

The Rectorial Address of John Cleese, Epam, 1971, 8 pages Dialogues

List of people who have declined a British honour


The transmigration program (Indonesian: Transmigrasi) was an initiative of the Indonesian Government to move landless people from densely populated areas of Indonesia to less populous areas of the country. This involved moving people predominantly from the island of Java, but also to a lesser extent from Bali and Madura, to less densely populated areas including Papua, Kalimantan, Sumatra, and Sulawesi.
The stated purpose of this program was to reduce the considerable poverty and overpopulation on Java, to provide opportunities for hard-working poor people, and to provide a workforce to better utilize the natural resources of the outer islands. The program, however, has been controversial with critics accusing the Indonesian Government of trying to use these migrants to reduce the proportion of native populations in receiving areas, thus weakening separatist movements. The program has often been cited as a major and ongoing factor in controversies and even conflict and violence between settlers and indigenous populations.

The stated purpose of the program, according to proponents in the Indonesian government and the development community, was to move millions of Indonesians from the densely populated inner islands of Java, Bali and Madura to the outer, less densely populated islands to achieve a more balanced population density. This would alleviate poverty by providing land and new opportunities to generate income for poor landless settlers. It would also benefit the nation as a whole by increasing the utilization of the natural resources of the less-populous islands.
The program may have been intended to encourage the unification of the country through the creation of a single Indonesian national identity to augment or replace regional identities. Whether such a change is desirable remains disputed.

Indonesia's transmigration program was the target of extensive opposition, particularly from within indigenous populations in the regions where transmigrants were settled. Some foreign and domestic observers have also criticized the program's intentions and implementation.
Many indigenous people saw the program as a part of an effort by the Java-based Indonesian Government to extend greater economic and political control over other regions, by moving in people with closer ties to Java and loyalty to the Indonesian state. This was particularly resented amongst some in areas such as Papua, which had an active scessionist movement trying to end what they saw as an unwanted Indonesian military occupation. The government agencies responsible for administering transmigration were often accused of being insensitive to local customary or adat land rights.
Transmigration has also been blamed for accelerating deforestation of sensitive rainforest areas, as formerly sparsely-populated areas experienced great increases in population. Migrants were often moved to entirely new "transmigration villages," constructed in regions that had been relatively unimpacted by human activity. By settling on this land, resources were used up and the lands became overgrazed, resulting in deforestation.
In many examples, the program also failed in its objective to improve the situation of the migrants. The soil and weather of their new locations were generally not nearly as productive as the volcanic soil of Java and Bali. The settlers were often landless people lacking in any farming skills, let alone skills appropriate to the new land, thus compromising their own chances of success..

Current Status

Demographics of Indonesia
Political migration
Human rights in western New Guinea
Bumiputra and Bumiputera
Green March Transmigrasi General


Aotus may refer to:
The name is derived from the Greek words for "earless" in both cases: the monkey is missing external ears, and the pea is missing earlike bracteoles.
Aotus (pea), one of the plant genera commonly known as golden peas in the family Fabaceae (bean family).
Aotus (monkey), the genus of night monkeys in the family Aotidae.


Thean Hou Temple
The Thean Hou Temple (Chinese: 天后宫) is a striking six-tiered Chinese temple. It is located on a 1.67 acres (6,760 m²) of land atop Robson Heights along Lorong Bellamy, overlooking Jalan Syed Putra (Federal Highway). It was completed in 1987 and officially opened in 1989. The property belongs to the Persatuan Hainan Selangor and Wilayah Persekutuan (Hainanese Association of Selangor and Federal Territory). This temple, built by the Hainanese community living in Kuala Lumpur is dedicated to Goddess Tian Hou (The Heavenly Mother).
This syncretic temple with elements of Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism is a grandiose structure and represents a successful combination of modern architectural techniques and authentic traditional design featuring imposing pillars, spectacular roofs, ornate carvings and intricate embellishments. Its grand architecture has made it a popular tourist destination.
The front entrance of the temple features a multi-arched gateway with red pillars, the colour symbolic of prosperity and good fortune. Souvenir stalls and a canteen are found on the 1st level. The 2nd level houses the multi-purpose hall while offices are located on the 3rd level. The 4th level has 3 tiers and the prayer hall is located here.
The prayer hall houses 3 altars, each with a sculpture of one deity or goddess. As one enters the prayer hall, the altar on the right is dedicated to Guan Yin, the Goddess of Mercy. Tian Hou is in the centre while Shui Wei Sheng Niang (the Goddess of the Waterfront) is at the left. In the middle of the hall and between the altars are two pairs of Kau Cim oracles that can be used by visitors.
Image:Left_statue.jpg Image:middle_statue.jpg
Despite the dedication to Tian Hou, worship of Guan Yin (or "Guan Shi-Yin") is a recurrent theme at the Thean Hou Temple. In addition to her altar in the prayer hall, there is also a smaller statue of Guan Yin to the right of the hall, set amongst rocks and falling water. Here one can kneel and receive a blessing of water from the statue. Outside the temple at the entrance to the grounds, there is a larger statue, similarly set amongst rocks and falling water. Finally there is a large statue of the goddess opposite the temple, along with a collection of other large statues that include representations of the twelve animals of Chinese astrology.
In addition, the temple also offers marriage registration services.


CFMT-TV is a Canadian television station, which broadcasts multicultural programming in Toronto, Ontario. Part of the OMNI Television group of stations, it uses the on-air brand OMNI.1.
Among non-ethnic residents of southern Ontario, CFMT is likely best known as home to various English-language syndicated talk shows and sitcom repeats, most prominently The Simpsons, airing twice nightly as counterprogramming to local news and other primetime programming.

CFMT-TV History
The station began broadcasting in 1979, under the brand name "MTV" (for Multicultural Television). It dropped that name to avoid confusion due to the 1981 launch of the American MTV cable network. In 1985, CFMT became Canada's first TV station to broadcast in stereo. The following year, it was sold to Rogers Communications. In 1993, CFMT installed repeat transmitters in London and Ottawa, on channels 69 and 60, respectively.
In 1980, CFMT made a bold move by being one of the first stations in Canada to go to 24-hour a day 7 day a week broadcasting with the introduction of The All-Night Show, starring Toronto comedian Chas Lawther, broadcast generally between midnight and 6 AM. The premise was that Lawther's character Chuck the Security Guard had, with the help of his never seen technically minded friend Ryerson (named after Toronto's Ryerson Polytechnic, now Ryerson University), took over the facilities of CFMT and accidentally broadcast their favorite shows over the air while fooling around with the equipment. The station's owner was suitably impressed and gave Chuck and Ryerson their own show. The All-Night Show generally showed re-runs of classic series such as The Twilight Zone, The Outer Limits and The Prisoner, and filled the space in between with music videos (including old Scopitones), old movie shorts and comedic banter. Lawther became a minor celebrity in Toronto and is still frequently seen on Canadian television. Although the show only lasted one year and ended in a contract dispute (despite surprisingly high ratings even in the days before widespread VCR use), 24 hour a day broadcasting became the standard for almost every television station in the years after the show.
In 2002, Rogers launched CJMT, or OMNI.2, in order to increase multicultural programming, and shortly after rebranded CFMT as OMNI.1. CFMT's programming for Asian and African communities moved to CJMT, while CFMT kept programming targeted to European and Latin American groups.


Johan Huizinga
Johan Huizinga (IPA: [joːhɑn hœyzɪŋxaː]) (December 7, 1872 - February 1, 1945), a Dutch historian, was one of the founders of modern cultural history. Born in Groningen, he started out as a student of Comparative linguistics, gaining a good command of Sanskrit. He wrote his doctoral thesis on the role of the jester in Indian drama in 1897. It was not until 1902 that his interest turned towards medieval and Renaissance history. He continued teaching as an Orientalist until he became a Professor of General and Dutch History at Groningen University in 1905. Then, in 1915, he was made Professor of General History at Leiden University, a post he held until 1942. From this point until his death in 1945 he was held in detention by the Nazis. He died in De Steeg in Gelderland, near Arnhem, and lies buried in the graveyard of the Reformed Church at 6 Haarlemmerstraatweg in Oegstgeest.
Huizinga had an esthetic approach to history, where art and spectacle played an important part. His most famous work is The Autumn of the Middle Ages (a.k.a. The Waning of the Middle Ages) (1919). He here reinterprets the later Middle Ages as a period of pessimism and decadence rather than rebirth.
Worthy of mentioning are also Erasmus (1924) and Homo Ludens (1938). In the latter book he discusses the influence of play on European culture. Huizinga also published books on American history and Dutch history in the 17th century.


Perfection is, broadly, a state of completeness and flawlessness.
The term "perfection" is actually used to designate a range of diverse, if often kindred, concepts. These concepts have historically been addressed in a number of discrete disciplines, notably mathematics, physics, chemistry, ethics, aesthetics, ontology and theology.

Kasparek's translation has subsequently appeared in the book: Władysław Tatarkiewicz, On perfection, Warsaw University Press, Center of Universalism, 1992, pp. 9-51. The book is a collection of papers by and about the late Professor Tatarkiewicz.

Perfection    Return to top of page.
an objective property (Petrarch, who opposed perfection to other esthetic qualities such as grace);
specific to art rather than to nature (Vasari);
a rare property (Alberti felt that not even Greek architecture had attained perfection);
a property of the whole work rather than of its parts (Alberti);
a conjunction of many values (Lodovico Dolce thought Raphael perfect because Raphael had manifold talent, as opposed to the one-sided Michelangelo);
something that required not merely talent but art, that is, skill (Vasari);
not the sole value in a work of art (Vasari differentiated perfection from grace; Renaissance Platonists such as Ficino viewed perfection as a divine attribute).
The word "perfection" has a special meaning in mathematics, where it gives a proper name to certain numbers that demonstrate uncommon properties.
In physics and chemistry, "perfection" designates a model — a conceptual construct for bodies that in reality do not precisely correspond to the model.
Elsewhere, the term "perfection" is used consistently with the word's etymology ("perfect" = "finished"). That is perfect which lacks nothing. This is how the term has been used in ontology (a perfect being), ethics (a perfect life) and medicine (perfect health). In these fields, the concept is understood variously as ideal model or as actual approximation to the model.
Also called "perfect" is that which completely achieves its purpose. Christian Wolff gave examples from biology (perfect vision) and technology (a clock that runs neither slow nor fast). Here "perfection" is less fictitious model than actual approximation to the model.
That is "perfect", which completely fulfills its functions. In social discourse, one speaks of a perfect artist, engineer or carpenter. The term is used similarly in art criticism, when speaking of perfect technique or of the perfect likeness of a portrait. Here again, "perfection" is either ideal model or approximate realization of the model.
In aesthetics and art theory, perfection is ascribed to what is fully harmonious — to what is constructed in accordance with a single principle (e.g., the Parthenon, the Odyssey).
Władysław Tatarkiewicz, O doskonałości, Warsaw, Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1976. An English translation by Christopher Kasparek, On Perfection, was serialized in Dialectics and Humanism: the Polish Philosophical Quarterly, vol. VI, no. 4 (autumn 1979), pp. 5-10; vol. VII, no. 1 (winter 1980), pp. 77-80; vol. VII, no. 2 (spring 1980), pp. 137-39; vol. VII, no. 3 (summer 1980), pp. 117-24; vol. VII, no. 4 (autumn 1980), pp. 145-53; vol. VIII, no. 1 (winter 1981), pp. 187-92; and vol. VIII, no. 2 (spring 1981), pp. 11-12.
Antoine de Saint-Exupéry is reputed to have said: "Perfection [in design] is achieved, not when there is nothing more to add, but when there is nothing left to take away."


Judah ben David Hayyuj
Judah ben David Hayyuj (Arabic: أبو زكريا يحيى بن داؤد حيوج Abu Zakariyya Yahya ibn Dawūd) was a Spanish-Jewish grammarian; born in Fez, Morocco, about 945. At an early age he went to Cordoba, where he seems to have remained till his death, which occurred about 1000 CE.

Hayyuj announced that all Hebrew stems consist of three letters, and maintained that when one of those letters was a "vowel letter," such a letter could be regarded as "concealed" in diverse ways in the various verbal forms. To substantiate his theory he wrote the treatise upon which his reputation chiefly rests, the Kitab al-Af'al Dhawat Huruf al-Lin (The Book of Verbs Containing Weak Letters). The treatise is in three parts: the first is devoted to verbs whose first radical is a weak letter; the second to verbs whose second radical is weak; and the third to verbs whose third radical is weak. Within each division he furnishes what he considers a complete list of the verbs belonging to the class in question, enumerates various forms of the verb, and, when necessary, adds brief comments and explanations. Preceding each division the principles underlying the formation of the stems belonging to the division are systematically set forth in a series of introductory chapters.
As a supplement to this treatise he wrote a second, which he called the Kitab al-Af'al Dhawat al-Mathalain (The Book of Verbs Containing Double Letters), and in which he points out the principles governing the verbs whose second and third radicals are alike. He furnishes a list of these verbs, together with their various forms occurring in the Bible. Besides the two treatises on verbs Hayyuj wrote Kitab al-Tanqit (The Book of Punctuation). This work, probably written before his two chief treatises, is an attempt to set forth the features underlying the Masoretic use of the vowels and of the word-tone. In this work he deals chiefly with nouns, and its purpose is more of a practical than of a theoretical character.
A fourth work, the Kitab al-Natf (The Book of Extracts), is known to have been written by Hayyuj, but only a fragment, unpublished as of the beginning of the 20th century, and a few quotations by later authors have survived. This was a supplement to his two grammatical works on the verb, and in it he noted the verbs omitted by him in the former treatises. In doing this he anticipated in a measure ibn Janah's Mustalhaq which was devoted to this very purpose. He arranged and discussed the verbal stems in question, not alphabetically, but in the order in which they occur in the Bible.


Nottingham Urban Area
Greater Nottingham is a conurbation based around the city of Nottingham in Nottinghamshire, England. Unlike Greater Manchester and Greater London, which are respectively a metropolitan county and a region, Greater Nottingham has no formal definition as an administrative area. However, the Office for National Statistics does define a Nottingham Urban Area with a population of 666,358 at the time of the 2001 census.
These towns are mainly in the three surrounding districts of Rushcliffe, Broxtowe and Gedling, though the area spills also into the Nottinghamshire district of Ashfield, and also the Amber Valley and Erewash districts of Derbyshire. The urban area is by the ONS figures the 7th largest in England, between the Liverpool Urban Area and the Sheffield Urban Area.
The local authorities collaborate in some ways. The Greater Nottingham Partnership considers the region to consist of the City of Nottingham plus the entirety of the Rushcliffe, Broxtowe and Gedling boroughs, along with Hucknall from Ashfield, but not the Derbyshire councils.[1].


Single-tier municipalities
Regional municipalities (or regions) are upper-tier municipalities that generally have more servicing responsibilities than the counties. They generally provide the following services: maintenance and construction of arterial roads, transit, policing, sewer and water systems, waste disposal, region-wide land use planning and development, as well as health and social services. Regions are typically more urbanized than counties. Regional municipalities are usually implemented in census divisions where an interconnected cluster of urban centres forms the majority of the division's area and population, but no single centre is overwhelmingly dominant over the others.
Current regional municipalities in Ontario, with regional seats listed in brackets:
Although Oxford County and the District Municipality of Muskoka are not called regions, they are defined as regional municipalities under Part 1, Section 1 of the Ontario Municipal Act, 2001.
Between 1998 and 2001, four regional municipalities that were dominated by a single city were amalgamated. In 1998, the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto became the amalgamated City of Toronto. In 2001, the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton became the City of Ottawa, the Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth became the City of Hamilton, and the Regional Municipality of Sudbury became the City of Greater Sudbury. At the same time, the Regional Municipality of Haldimand-Norfolk was split into Haldimand County and Norfolk County.

Durham (Whitby)
Halton (Milton)
Muskoka District (Bracebridge)
Niagara (Thorold)
Oxford County (Woodstock)
Peel (Brampton)
Waterloo (Kitchener)
York (Newmarket) Regional municipalities
Counties have fewer responsibilities than regions, as the lower-tier municipalities (cities, towns, villages, townships) within the counties typically provide the majority of municipal services to their residents. The responsibilities of county governments are generally limited to the following: maintenance and construction of arterial roads, health and social services, and county land use planning. Counties are only found in Southern Ontario.
Counties may be as large as regional municipalities in population, but their population density is generally lower (although not as low as in a district.) Counties may include major cities, such as London, Kingston and Windsor, but these cities have generally not evolved into urban agglomerations with other communities, as in regions and "megacities".
Counties may also include separated municipalities, communities that are considered part of the county for census purposes but are not administratively connected to the county. Municipalities are separated when regional or single-tier status is not appropriate for the municipality's population patterns, but their population is still large enough that it may adversely affect the county's ability to provide services to its smaller communities.
County seats in brackets.
(* Frontenac County exists only by name, and was actually abolished in 1998. While the Frontenac Management Unit does oversee a limited number of services shared by Kingston and the townships, it does not exist as a typical Ontario county.)

Bruce County (Walkerton)
Dufferin County (Orangeville)
Elgin County (St. Thomas)
Essex County (Windsor)
Frontenac County* (Kingston)
Grey County (Owen Sound)
Haliburton County (Minden)
Hastings County (Belleville)
Huron County (Goderich)
Lambton County (Wyoming)
Lanark County (Perth)
Leeds and Grenville United Counties (Brockville)
Lennox and Addington County (Greater Napanee)
Middlesex County (London)
Northumberland County (Cobourg)
Perth County (Stratford)
Peterborough County (Peterborough)
Prescott and Russell United Counties (L'Orignal)
Renfrew County (Pembroke)
Simcoe County (Barrie)
Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry United Counties (Cornwall)
Wellington County (Guelph) List of Ontario census divisionsList of Ontario census divisions Districts

Subdivisions of Canada
List of Ontario census divisions by population
List of communities in Ontario


Wansbeck is a local government district in south-east Northumberland, England. Its main settlements are Ashington, Bedlington and Newbiggin-by-the-Sea.
The district is mostly urban, on the North Sea coast north of the Tyneside conurbation. It borders Blyth Valley district to the south, the border being the River Blyth. It was formed on April 1, 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, by the merger of the urban districts of Ashington, Bedlingtonshire and Newbiggin-by-the-Sea. It is named after the River Wansbeck.


Saint Aurelius
Saint Aurelius was Christian saint who died around 430. He was a bishop of Carthage from ca. 391 and led a number of ecclesiastical councils on Christian doctrine. Augustine of Hippo admired Aurelius, and a number of letters from Augustine to Aurelius have survived. Aurelius's feast day in the Roman Catholic Church is July 20.


Design News
Design News (ISSN-0011-9407) is a US trade publication and web site owned by Reed Business Information serving the information needs of the field of design engineering.
The editor-in-chief is John Dodge, with the editorial offices located in Waltham, Massachusetts, USA.
Established in 1946, Design News magazine is published 18 times per year. The six additional issues are released in February, April, June, September, October, and November.
Common topics include CAD, design engineering, consumer electronics, and automation.
As of December 2006, total BPA audited circulation is 170,062 subscribers.


Robert Blackadder
Robert Blackadder was a medieval Scottish cleric, diplomat and politician, who was abbot of Melrose, bishop-elect of Aberdeen and bishop of Glasgow; when the last was elevated to archiepiscopal status in 1492, he became the first ever archbishop of Glasgow.
Robert was the younger brother of Patrick Blackadder of Tulliallan, a middling Fife laird. Robert studied at the University of St Andrews (where his name is listed among the students in either 1461 or 1462), and in 1464 he was received as a bachelor in the University of Paris. The following year, 1465, he graduated as licentiate. In 1471 King James III of Scotland sent him as a messenger to Pope Paul II. It was probably while at Rome that Robert secured from the pope the abbacy of Melrose. This was the first time a non-Cistercian had become abbot at Melrose, and moreover the pope granted Blackadder leave to take the abbacy without becoming a monk. This did not go down well with the monks at Melrose. One monk, Richard Lamb, challenged this decision at the papal court. Lamb had the support of the bishop of Glasgow, John Laing, and of the monks at Melrose. Several years of litigation followed, and after being offered a substantial pension, Blackadder resigned the abbacy in 1476. In 1477 Blackadder's name is recorded in a letter of Pope Sixtus IV, where it is said that the pope had received a petition from "Robert Blakidir", a rector of the church of Lasswade in the diocese of St Andrews, requesting permission to build a hospital near the church. Permission and funds were granted, and so came into being the Hospital of St Mary of Consolation. A year later, the pope granted Blackadder permission to convert the church of Lasswade into a prebend of the church of St Salvador in St Andrews, specifying that the holder must have a licentiate or doctorate.
He was elected as bishop of Aberdeen in sometime in 1480. The exact date of Robert's election to Aberdeen is uncertain, but at a meeting of the Lords of Council which took place between June 12 and June 23, he is named "Robert, bishop of Aberdeen". He does not seem to have been consecrated to the Aberdeen see before March 19, 1483, when he was translated to the then vacant bishopric of Glasgow. Blackadder travelled to Rome to receive consecration at the hands of Pope Sixtus IV. The consecration happened sometime in either May or June. By November 20 he is back in Scotland witnessing a royal charter at Edinburgh. Blackadder's trip to Italy had cost him a lot of money, and he fell heavily into debt. On March 31, 1487, a papal Bull was issued by Pope Innocent VIII granting Blackadder half of the diocese's benefices and ordering Blackadder's subordinates to pay a "benevolence", i.e. a tax, to pay back the debt.
Blackadder's reign as bishop of Glasgow is perhaps most noted for the elevation of the bishopric to archiepiscopal status. In 1472, a papal Bull of Sixtus IV elevated the Bishop of St Andrews to Archbishop. This was the first time any Scottish bishopric had received metropolitan status from the papacy. However, the move was not popular amongst the entire Scottish ecclesiastical establishment. The other bishops of Scotland resented having to do homage to the bishop of St Andrews, especially wealthier sees like Glasgow, Dunkeld and Aberdeen. It was Blackadder's predecessor at Aberdeen, Thomas Spens, who in February 1374 raised the first significant opposition by obtaining life-time exemption from the jurisdiction of St Andrews over either himself or his diocese. Nevertheless, on March 27, 1487 Innocent VIII made the archbishop of St Andrews "Primate of All Scotland". The latter was especially intolerable for the bishops of Glasgow, who would become subject to the visitations, inspections and the rule of St Andrews. The following year however, on March 25, 1488 an exemption was granted to Glasgow from this kind of interference from St Andrews, when this privilege was granted by the pope for Blackadder's own lifetime. However, this was still not enough. Moreover, Blackadder had the sympathy of the king, James IV, who himself was worried about so much power resting in the hands of one bishop. Letters to the pope were sent by the king and the Scottish parliament, requesting that Glasgow be given the same status as the Archbishopric of York. Finally, on January 9, 1492, a Bull of Pope Innocent VIII elevated Glasgow to an archbishopric, holding as suffragans the bishop of Dunkeld, the bishop of Dunblane, the bishop of Argyll, and the bishop of Galloway. Dunblane was reassigned to St Andrews while Blackadder was still archbishop, in 1500; Blackadder may have lost Dunkeld too, for we know that by 1515 Dunkeld is back within the jurisdiction of St Andrews.
Archbishop Robert was one of the leading figures of the regime of King James IV. Robert was involved in a number on embassies of James' behalf, including embassies to England, France and Spain. He arrived at the court of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile on August 24, 1495. A letter, dated September 12 of this year, was written by these monarchs to the pope urging that Archbishop Robert be made Cardinal. Nothing seems to have come of it. Blackadder was back in Scotland by Christmas, but returned to Spain the following spring. His business was obtaining a bride for his king. The same business also took him to France. However, it was in England that a bride was eventually obtained, Margaret Tudor, the daughter of King Henry VII of England. Archbishop Blackadder would be made a godfather of their son James, the future King James V.
Archbishop Robert Blackadder died on July 28, 1508 while en route to Jerusalem on pilgrimage.


Lothair II of Lotharingia
Lothair II (835 - August 8, 869), was the second son of Emperor Lothair I and Ermengarde of Tours.
Upon his father's death in 855, he received as his kingdom a territory west of the Rhine stretching from the North Sea to the Jura mountains. It became known as Regnum Lotharii and early in the 10th century as Lotharingia or Lorraine, a designation subsequently applied only to the duchy of Lorraine). His elder brother Louis II received northern Italy and the title of Emperor, and his younger brother Charles received the western parts of his father's domains, Burgundy and the Provence.
On the death of his brother Charles in 863, Lothair added some lands south of the Jura to this realm, but except for a few feeble expeditions against the Norman pirates he seems to have done little for its government or its defense.
Lothair's reign was chiefly occupied by his efforts to obtain a divorce from his wife Theutberga, a sister of Hucbert, abbot of St Maurice (d. 864), and his relations with his uncles Charles the Bald and Louis the German were influenced by his desire to obtain their support for this endeavor. Although quarrels and reconciliations between the three kings followed each other in quick succession, in general it may be said that Louis favoured the divorce, and Charles opposed it, while neither lost sight of the fact that Lothair had no sons to inherit his lands. Lothair, whose desire for the divorce was prompted by his affection for a woman named Waldrada, put away Theutberga, but Hucbert took up arms on her behalf, and after she had submitted successfully to the ordeal of water, Lothair was compelled to restore her in 858. Still pursuing his purpose, he won the support of his brother, Emperor Louis II, by a cession of lands and obtained the consent of the local clergy to the divorce and to his marriage with Waldrada, which took place in 862.
A synod of Frankish bishops met at Metz in 863 and confirmed this decision, but Teutberga fled to the court of Charles the Bald, and Pope Nicholas I voided the decision of the synod. An attack on Rome by the emperor was without result, and in 865 Lothair, threatened with excommunication and convinced that Louis and Charles at their recent meeting had discussed the partition of his kingdom, again took back his wife. Teutberga, however, either from inclination or compulsion, now expressed her desire for a divorce, and Lothair went to Italy to obtain the assent of the new pope, Adrian II. Placing a favourable interpretation upon the words of the pope, he had set out on the return journey, when he was seized with fever and died at Piacenza on the August 8, 869. He left, by Waldrada, a son Hugo who was declared illegitimate, and his kingdom was divided between his uncles Charles the Bald and Louis the German by the Treaty of Mersen.


Bubble and Squeak
Bubble and squeak (sometimes just called bubble) is a traditional English dish made with the shallow-fried leftover vegetables from a roast dinner. The chief ingredients are potato and cabbage, but carrots, peas, brussels sprouts, and other vegetables can be added. It is traditionally served with cold meat from the Sunday roast, and pickles. Traditionally the meat was added to the bubble and squeak itself, although nowadays the vegetarian version is more common. The cold chopped vegetables (and cold chopped meat if used) are fried in a pan together with mashed potato until the mixture is well-cooked and brown on the sides. The name is a description of the action and sound made during the cooking process.
Prepared frozen and tinned versions are available.
The name bubble and squeak is used throughout the UK — it is also Cockney rhyming slang for "Greek". In other parts of the country the dish may be referred to as bubble and scrape or fry up.
Musician Anthony Phillips has released a short instrumental called "Bubble And Squeak".


The Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex (Edward Antony Richard Louis; born 10 March 1964) is a member of the British Royal Family, the youngest child and third son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Earl of Wessex since 1999. The Earl of Wessex is currently seventh in the line of succession.

Early life
Prince Edward, like other royal children at that time, was educated by a private governess until the age of seven. Afterwards he attended Gibbs School, in Kensington, West London. In 1972, he went to Heatherdown Preparatory School near Ascot in Berkshire. Following in the footsteps of his father and brothers, he attended Gordonstoun School in Scotland and was appointed head boy in his last term.
Like his brother, Prince Andrew, Prince Edward spent a "gap year" abroad, spending two terms at the Collegiate School, Wanganui, New Zealand, as a house tutor/junior master during September 1982.
Returning to England, Prince Edward enrolled at Jesus College, University of Cambridge, reading history. He graduated with a 2:2 Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree in 1986. Subsequently, he was awarded an MA (Cantab.) in 1991.
This makes Prince Edward the fourth of only five members of the Royal Family in history to have obtained a university degree:

Prince William of Gloucester (first cousin of The Queen through their grandfather, George V);
Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester (first cousin of The Queen through their grandfather, George V);
Charles, Prince of Wales (first child of The Queen);
Prince Edward; and
Prince William of Wales (Prince Charles' first child and Prince Edward's own nephew).
HRH The Prince of Wales HRH The Duchess of Cornwall

  • HRH Prince William of Wales
    HRH Prince Henry of Wales
    HRH The Duke of York

    • HRH Princess Beatrice of York
      HRH Princess Eugenie of York
      HRH The Earl of Wessex HRH The Countess of Wessex

      • Lady Louise Windsor
        HRH The Princess Royal
        HRH The Duke of Gloucester HRH The Duchess of Gloucester
        HRH The Duke of Kent HRH The Duchess of Kent
        HRH Prince Michael of Kent HRH Princess Michael of Kent
        HRH Princess Alexandra Education
        On leaving university, Prince Edward joined the Royal Marines to train as an officer. But the Marines proved to be too demanding for the Prince, and he resigned his commission in January 1987, before graduation. After leaving the Marines, Prince Edward became more involved in theatre, an activity he had enjoyed extensively at school and university. In the late 1980s, he worked for two theatrical production companies, including Andrew Lloyd Webber's Really Useful Theatre Company. During his time at Lloyd Webber's company, he worked on such plays as Phantom of the Opera, Starlight Express, and Cats, and dated actress Ruthie Henshall for two years.
        Prince Edward's first foray into the world of television production was, It's a Royal Knockout television programme in June 1987, in which teams sponsored by himself and other members of the Royal family competed for charity. In 1993, Prince Edward formed the Ardent Television production company, under the name Edward Windsor. Ardent was heavily involved in the production of documentaries and dramas, particularly on the royal families of Europe. With extensive access to the Royal Archives at Windsor Castle, Prince Edward had plenty of material for his work. However, he was accused in the media of using his royal connections for personal and business gain, particularly given the financial problems of Ardent since its founding (it reported losses in all years of existence except one). In 2002, the Prince announced that he would step down as director of production and joint managing director of Ardent to concentrate on his public duties and to support the Queen during her Golden Jubilee year.
        During his television career, the prince used the names Edward Windsor and, later, Edward Wessex, leading The Guardian, for one, to refer to him as "the Edward formerly known as Prince".

        On 6 January 1999 the Prince announced his engagement to Sophie Rhys-Jones, a public relations manager with her own firm. Their wedding took place on 19 June 1999 at St. George's Chapel, Windsor. This was a break with the recent tradition of holding large formal royal weddings at Westminster Abbey. The marriage quieted, but did not entirely eliminate, rumours that the Prince was homosexual.. It is not known how this agreement will be affected by the Earl's future creation as Duke of Edinburgh (unlike the younger sons of earls, the younger sons of dukes are usually styled Lord).
        The Earl and Countess of Wessex have one child: Lady Louise Windsor (born 8 November 2003) and reside at Bagshot Park in Surrey, once the home of the Duke of Connaught's family.
        On 2 July 2007, Buckingham Palace announced that The Countess of Wessex is expecting another baby, due in December 2007. If the child is a son, he will be styled Viscount Severn from birth, and, eventually, in line for the dukedom of Edinburgh, at which point he may be styled Earl of Wessex.

        The Earl and Countess of Wessex carry out a full schedule of royal duties on behalf of the Queen, receiving civil list monies from the Queen of £141,000 per annum.
        The Earl has, in recent years, succeeded to many of the roles of his father, the Duke of Edinburgh, who is reducing some of his roles due to age. The Earl replaced him as President of the Commonwealth Games Federation (since 2006 its Vice-Patron) and opened the 1998 Commonwealth Games in Malaysia. He has also taken over the Duke's role in the Duke of Edinburgh's Award scheme (which is very fitting given the understanding that he will become the Duke of Edinburgh upon his father's death).
        As part of the celebrations of the 50th anniversary of the Duke of Edinburgh Award scheme the prince visited Richard Huish College in Taunton, Somerset. There he met with several representatives and participants of the scheme.
        His other appointments reflect his interests in sport and the arts.

        Royal duties

        Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex Titles, styles, honours and arms

        10 March 1964-19 June 1999: His Royal Highness The Prince Edward
        19 June 1999-: His Royal Highness The Earl of Wessex Titles
        The Prince's style in full: His Royal Highness The Prince Edward Antony Richard Louis, Earl of Wessex, Viscount Severn, Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order, Honorary Member of the Saskatchewan Order of Merit, Aide-de-Camp to Her Majesty

        British Honours
        Commonwealth Realms Honours

        KG: Knight of the Garter, 23 April 2006
        CVO: Commander of the Royal Victorian Order, 10 March 1989

        • KCVO: Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order, 2 June 2003
          ADC(P): Personal Aide-de-Camp to the Queen, 1 August 2004
          Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal, 10 March 1977
          Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal, 2 June 2002
          Flag of Canada Honorary Member, Saskatchewan Order of Merit, 11 May 2005
          Flag of Canada Commemorative Medal for the Centennial of Saskatchewan, 7 June 2005
          Flag of New Zealand New Zealand Commemorative Medal (150th anniversary of Treaty of Waitangi), 1990 Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex Honours

          2Lt, October 1986-January 1987: Second-Lieutenant, Royal Marines Military
          Commonwealth Realms

          Royal Honorary Colonel, of the Royal Wessex Yeomanry
          Royal Colonel, of the 2nd Battalion, The Rifles
          Commodore-in-Chief, of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary
          Colonel-in-Chief, of Flag of Canada The Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment
          Colonel-in-Chief, of Flag of Canada the Saskatchewan Dragoons Honorary military appointments
          The Earl's personalized coat of arms are those of the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom with a label for difference: Quarterly (by quarters):
          1st and 4th, Gules three Lions passant guardant in pale Or (England). (The first and fourth quarters display the three lions, representing England).
          2nd quarter is of a lion rampant within a Double Tressure floury counterflory Gules (Scotland). (The second quarter, displays a red lion in a yellow field with a double border coloured red, this represents Scotland).
          3rd, Azure a Harp Or stringed Argent (Ireland). (The third quarter shows a harp against a blue background, this represents Ireland).
          The whole differenced by a Label of three points Argent the central point charged with a Tudor rose.


          List of British princes