For Boomerang worldwide, see Boomerang (TV Channel).
The Australian version of Boomerang was launched in March 2004 as part of the Foxtel Digital launch, with a lineup very similar to that of the UK version. It started previously as a programming block on Cartoon Network, one every weekday morning, and one every weekday evening. On weekends, Cartoon Network had "Boomerang Character Of the Month" - a two hour block that aired Saturday and Sunday evenings and featured a particular Boomerang show for the two hours.

Boomerang programs

Captain Caveman
Cow and Chicken
Droopy: Master Detective
Dexter's Laboratory
Duck Dodgers
Fantastic Max
The Flintstones
The Great Grape Ape Show
He-Man and the Masters of the Universe
Help! It's the Hair Bear Bunch
Huckleberry Hound
I Am Weasel
The Jetsons
Johnny Bravo
Josie and the Pussycats
Josie and the Pussycats in Outer Space
The Looney Tunes Show
Magilla Gorilla
Mike, Lu & Og
Mr. T
Paddington Bear
Paw Paws
The Perils of Penelope Pitstop
Pixie and Dixie
Quick Draw McGraw
Richie Rich
Scooby-Doo and Scrappy-Doo
Scooby-Doo, Where Are You!
Secret Squirrel
She-Ra: Princess of Power
Sheep in the Big City
The Smurfs
Snooper and Blabber
Sylvester and Tweety Mysteries
The Tom and Jerry Show
The Road Runner Show
Time Squad
Top Cat
Wacky Races
Wally Gator
The Woody Woodpecker Show
Yakky Doodle
Yo Yogi
Yogi Bear Shows currently airing (currently June 2007)

The Banana Splits Adventure Show
Casper and the Angels
The Addams Family
The Centurions
The Fantastic Four
The Herculoids
The Real Adventures of Jonny Quest
Frankenstein Jr. and The Impossibles
Heathcliff and Marmaduke
The New Scooby-Doo Mysteries
The New Shmoo
Speed Buggy
Speed Racer
Swat Kats
Atom Ant
Squiddly Diddly Shows which have formerly aired

Whatever Happened to Robot Jones?
Courage the Cowardly Dog Boomerang (Australian TV channel) Shows coming soon

Boomerang Programming Blocks
Rush Hour is a Boomerang block that airs weekdays from 5pm - 6pm. The name 'Rush Hour' is thought to have come from the term 'peak hour'. It started in September 2006 and has never changed its lineup. The shows that air on Rush Hour are:
-5pm: The Road Runner Show
-5.30pm: The Tom and Jerry Show

Rush Hour
Grrr! is a bear-themed Boomerang block that airs weekdays at 2pm. It started in November 2006 and has changed its lineup just once. In May 2007, Grrr! swapped timeslots with Boomeracers, which now airs at 8pm on weekends (Grrr's former timeslot). Prior to the change, Grrr! aired The CB Bears. Now, it only airs Yogi Bear and Help! It's the Hair Bear Bunch.

Boomerang (Australian TV channel) Grrr!
Boomeracers is a car-racing-themed programming block that airs weekends at 8pm on Boomerang. It started in late 2005 as a two-hour weekday morning block. It was cancelled soon after. Boomeracers returned to Boomerang in October 2006 as a weekday afternoon block, however Speed Racer and Speedy Gonzales were cancelled. The block now only aired The Perils of Penelope Pitstop and Wacky Races. In May 2007, the block switched timeslots with Grrr!

Boomeraction is a block which, as its name suggests, consists of classic action-oriented shows. The block was also shown on Cartoon Network from 2003 - 2004 and moved to Boomerang once the channel launched. Boomeraction's timeslot started originally on Cartoon Network as 9pm Friday Nights. Then it expanded to weekdays at 9pm. Afetr the move to Boomerang, Boomeraction aired at 6pm weekdays. In January 2007, the block moved to its original timeslot at 9pm weekdays. Its lineup has previously contained shows such as He-Man and the Masters of the Universe, She-Ra: Princess of Power, The Centurions, The Real Adventures of Jonny Quest, Super Friends, Swat Kats, The New Adventures of Captain Planet, Space Ghost and Birdman and the Galaxy Trio. It now shows the following:
-9pm: The Transformers
-9.30pm: Thundercats

Starting just recently in April 2007, Boom, Boom, Boom is Boomerang's newest programming block. It airs for two hours every weeknight at 10pm and is very similar to Cartoon Network's 120% Cartoon Network since it also has no ads. The lineup on Boom, Boom, Boom changes every month. This month's lineup is:

10pm: Super Friends
10.24pm: Space Ghost
10.48pm: The Fantastic Four
11.12pm: He-Man and the Masters of the Universe
11.36pm: She-Ra: Princess of Power Boom, Boom, Boom!


Glasgow University Medical School
University of Glasgow
Glasgow Medical School is the medical school of the University of Glasgow, and offers a 5 year MBChB degree course.


University of Glasgow Medical School Course Structure
This is an integrated programme of clinical and scientific topics. The material covered has been selected to provide a comprehensive overview of medical and scientific principles. The knowledge component of the curriculum relies largely on Problem-based learning. It is seen as a preparation for a professional career based on lifelong learning. The programme has been developed by NHS and academic clinical staff working with scientists from the Faculties of Medicine and Biomedical & Life Sciences at the University.
Each year is split into 5 week blocks in which the PBL sessions, labs and plenaries all relate to a specific system or theme:

The Core (Years 1-3)

Block 1 - Hierarchy of Systems, Core Values in Medicine
Block 2 - Elementary Topography
Block 3 and 4 - Determinants of Health; Disease Patterns; Nutrition, Metabolism, Growth and Development
Block 5 - Homeostasis
Block 6 - Risks and Responses Year 1

Block 7 - Conception, Growth and Development
Block 8 - Musculoskeletal and Neurological Systems
Block 9 - Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Renal Systems
Block 10 - Digestion and Metabolism
Block 11 - Regulation and Responses Year 2

Block 12 - Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems
Block 13 - Haematology, Musculoskeletal Systems, Dermatology
Block 14 - Neurology, Psychiatry
Block 15 - Abdomen and Breast Year 3
Student selected modules (SSM) constitute approximately 20% of the structured course time and are designed to allow the selection and in depth study of special interest subjects. A wide variety of topics for study are available. Increasingly, students are proposing their own SSMs and in addition there is the facility for an SSM to be linked to an elective, allowing for projects to be carried out overseas or a small research project to be completed.

Student Selected Modules
Within the Glasgow course students have early contact with patients. Training in communication and clinical skills starts in Year 1. The vocational skills component also deals with topics relating to professional standards and behaviour.

Years 4 & 5
The purpose build Wolfson Medical School Building opened in September 2002, designed by Reiach and Hall Architects at a cost of £9m. Its facilities include:

Wolfson Medical School Building
The Walton Foundation Library and Resource Area (also known as the Study Landscape) occupies three levels of the building and is open to medical students 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. It offers a wide variety of resources:

120 study carrels (booths)
Access to over 3000 books, including multiple copies of Core texts.
120 flat screen computers
CD-ROMs and Computer Aided Learning packages
video recorders and DVD players for Clinical Skills videos/DVDs
6 project rooms Study Landscape
Clinical Skills is made up from a fully equipped ward and side rooms complete with audio visual equipment, allowing student to document, analyse and improve their performance. This area also contains Harvey (a cardiology patient simulator which can help students to diagnose cariac abnormalities) and Sim-man (a life support patient simulator).

Clinical Skills
Three mini lecture theatres which can hold around 80 people each.

Seminar Rooms
The 10 PBL rooms are furnished with tables, chairs, AV equipment and white boards to allow small group work.

PBL Rooms
The central triangle of the medical school, covered by a glass roof and with its own café and seating area.

Associatied Hospitals
Past students of the University of Glasgow Medical School include:

Dr Harry Burns (Chief Medical Officer for Scotland, 2005-present)
Dr Ernest Macalpine ("Mac") Armstrong (Chief Medical Officer for Scotland, 2000-2005)
Prof Sir Kenneth Calman (Chief Medical Officer for Scotland, 1989-1991; Chief Medical Officer, United Kingdom of England, 1991-1998; Vice Chancellor of Durham University, 1998-2007)
Dr Archibald Joseph Cronin (Novelist; author of The Citadel and The Stars Look Down)
Dr Liam Fox (Conservative politician; Shadow Defence Secretary; MP for Woodspring)


Definition Definitions of fascism
Varieties and derivatives of fascism Italian fascism Neo-Fascism Islamofascism Left-wing fascism Rexism Falangism Ustaše Clerical fascism Austrofascism Iron Guard Arrow Cross Greek fascism Crypto-fascism Lebanese PhalangeItalian fascism Japanese fascism Estado Novo (Portugal) Estado Novo (Brazil) Brazilian Integralism
Fascist political parties and movements Fascism as an international phenomenon List of fascist movements by country
Fascism in history Fascio March on Rome Fascist Italy Italian Social Republic 4th of August Regime Related subjects Actual Idealism Anti-fascism Benito Mussolini Black Brigades Blackshirts Class collaboration Corporatism Economics of fascism Fascism and ideology Fascist symbolism Fascist unification rhetoric Giovanni Gentile Grand Council of Fascism Roman salute National syndicalism Neo-Fascism Social fascism Third Position  v  d  e 
For the party of Mussolini, see National Fascist Party.
For the two Italian states called "Fascist Italy", see Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) and Italian Social Republic
Italian Fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. German Nazism, under Adolf Hitler, was inspired by Italian Fascism but only came to power ten years later in 1933. Similar movements appeared throughout the world including Europe, Japan, and Latin America between World War I and World War II. Although Fascism, strictly speaking, refers only to Italian fascism, the word is often used to describe similar ideologies and movements. Italian Fascism is often considered to be a proper noun and thus denoted by a capital letter "F", whereas generic fascism is conventionally represented with the lower-case character "f". Italian Fascism is considered a model for other forms of fascism, yet there is disagreement over which aspects of structure, tactics, culture, and ideology represent a "fascist minimum" or core.

The fascist concept of corporatism and particularly its theories of class collaboration and economic and social relations have similarities to the model laid out by Pope Leo XIII's 1891 encyclical Rerum Novarum. This encyclical addressed politics as it had been transformed by the Industrial Revolution, and other changes in society that had occurred during the nineteenth century. The document criticized capitalism, complaining of the exploitation of the masses in industry. However, it also sharply criticized the Marxist concept of class struggle, and the proposed socialist solution to exploitation (the elimination, or at least the limitation, of private property). Rerum Novarum called for strong governments to undertake a mission to protect their people from exploitation, while continuing to uphold private property and reject socialism. It also asked Catholics to apply principles of social justice in their own lives.
Seeking to find some principle to compete with and replace the Marxist doctrine of class struggle, Rerum Novarum urged social solidarity between the upper and lower classes. Its analogy of the state as being like a body working together as "one mind" had some cultural influence on the early Fascists of Catholic nations. It also indicated the state had a right to suppress "firebrands" and striking workers. Further Rerum Novarum proposed a kind of corporatism that resembled medieval guilds for an industrial age. This relates far more directly to Brazilian Integralism form of Fascism than anything in Italy. The encyclical intended to counteract the "subversive nature" of both Marxism and liberalism.
Themes and ideas developed in Rerum Novarum can also be found in the ideology of fascism as developed by Mussolini. Although it also contains ideas like "the members of the working classes are citizens by nature and by the same right as the rich" or "the State has for its office to protect natural rights, not to destroy them; and, if it forbid its citizens to form associations, it contradicts the very principle of its own existence," that never fit easily with Italian Fascism.

Rerum Novarum, anti-communism
Fascism also borrowed from Gabriele D'Annunzio's Charter of Carnaro for his ephemeral Regency of Carnaro in the city of Fiume.
Sergio Panunzio, a major theoretician of fascism in the 1920s, had a syndicalist background, but his influence waned as the movement shed all connection to the working-class autonomy of syndicalism.
Revolutionary syndicalism had a strong influence on fascism as well, particularly as some syndicalists intersected with D'Annunzio's ideas. Before the First World War, syndicalism had stood for a militant doctrine of working-class revolution. It distinguished itself from Marxism because it insisted that the best route for the working class to liberate itself was the trade union rather than the party.
The Italian Socialist Party ejected the syndicalists in 1908. The syndicalist movement split between anarcho-syndicalists and a more moderate tendency. Some moderates began to advocate "mixed syndicates" of workers and employers. In this practice, they absorbed the teachings of Catholic theorists and expanded them to accommodate greater power of the state, and diverted them by the influence of D'Annunzio to nationalist ends.
When Henri De Man's Italian translation of Au-delà du marxisme (Beyond Marxism) emerged, Mussolini was excited and wrote to the author that his criticism "destroyed any scientific element left in Marxism". Mussolini was appreciative of the idea that a corporative organization and a new relationship between labour and capital would eliminate "the clash of economic interests" and thereby neutralize "the germ of class warfare.'"
Thinkers such as Robert Michels, Sergio Panunzio, Ottavio Dinale, Agostino Lanzillo, Angelo Oliviero Olivetti, Michele Bianchi, and Edmondo Rossoni played a part in this attempt to find a third way that rejected both capitalism and Marxism.
The reality of corporatism and of class collaboration in Fascism is, however, disputed. Daniel Guérin, for example, categorically reject it in the classic opus Fascism and Big Business (1936), claiming it was only an ideological claim, invalidated by the reality of the economic policies of Fascism. He underscored the absence of real representation of workers' in such Fascist labour organizations, and the nomination by the state of representants of workers instead of their election.

Syndicalism and the 'Third Way'


Main article: Fascio Early history
Many historians claim that the March 23, 1919 meeting at the Piazza San Sepolcro was the historic "birthplace" of the fascist movement. However, this would imply that the Italian Fascists "came from nowhere" which could be considered false. Mussolini revived his former group, Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria, in order to take part in the 1919 elections in response to an increase in Communist activity occurring in Milan. The Fasci di Combattimento were the result of this continuation (not creation) of the Fascist party. The result of the meeting was that Fascism became an organized political movement. Among the founding members were the revolutionary syndicalist leaders Agostino Lanzillo and Michele Bianchi.
In 1919, the fascists developed a program that called for:
As the movement evolved, several of these initial ideas were abandoned and rejected.
Mussolini capitalized on fear of a Communist revolution

a democratic republic,
separation of church and state,
a national army,
progressive taxation for inherited wealth, and
development of co-operatives or guilds to replace labor unions. Rise to power
Mussolini's fascist state was established nearly a decade before Hitler's rise to power (1922 and the March on Rome). Both a movement and a historical phenomenon, Italian Fascism was, in many respects, an adverse reaction to both the apparent failure of laissez-faire economics and fear of Communism.
Fascism was, to an extent, a product of a general feeling of anxiety and fear among the middle class of postwar Italy. This fear arose from a convergence of interrelated economic, political, and cultural pressures. Under the banner of this authoritarian and nationalistic ideology, Mussolini was able to exploit fears regarding the survival of capitalism in an era in which postwar depression, the rise of a more militant left, and a feeling of national shame and humiliation stemming from Italy's 'mutilated victory' at the hands of the World War I postwar peace treaties seemed to converge. Such unfulfilled nationalistic aspirations tainted the reputation of liberalism and constitutionalism among many sectors of the Italian population. In addition, such democratic institutions had never grown to become firmly rooted in the young nation-state.
This same postwar depression heightened the allure of Marxism among an urban proletariat who were even more disenfranchised than their continental counterparts. But fear of the growing strength of trade unionism, Communism, and socialism proliferated among the elite and the middle class. In a way, Benito Mussolini filled a political vacuum. Fascism emerged as a "third way" — as Italy's last hope to avoid imminent collapse of the 'weak' Italian liberalism, and Communist revolution.
In this fluid situation, Mussolini took advantage of the opportunity and, rapidly abandoning the early syndicalist and republican program, put himself at the service of the antisocialist cause. The fascist militias, supported by the wealthy classes and by a large part of the state apparatus which saw in him the restorer of order, launched a violent offensive against the syndicalists and all political parties of a socialist or Catholic inspiration, particularly in the north of Italy (Emiglia Romagna, Toscana, etc.), causing numerous victims though the substantial indifference of the forces of order. These acts of violence were, in large part, provoked by fascist squadristi who were increasingly and openly supported by Dino Grandi, the only real competitor to Mussolini for the leadership of the fascist party until the Congress of Rome in 1921.
The violence increased considerably during the period from 1920-1922 until the March on Rome. Confronted by these badly armed and badly organized fascist militias attacking the Capital, King Victor Emmanuel III, preferring to avoid any spilling of blood, decided to appoint Mussolini, who at that moment had the support of about 22 deputies in Parliament, President of the Council. Victor Emmanuel continued to maintain control of the armed forces: if he had wanted to, he would have had no difficulties in booting Mussolini and the completely inferior fascist forces out of Rome. Therefore, it is not appropriate to refer to Mussolini's rise as a "coup d'état" since he obtained his post legally with the blessing of the sovereign of the nation.

Establishment of the Fascist state
As Prime Minister, the first years of Mussolini's reign were characterized by a coalition government composed of nationalists, liberals and populists and did not assume dictatorial connotations until the assassination of Matteotti. In domestic politics, Mussolini favoured the complete restoration of State authority, with the integration of the Fasci di Combattimento into the armed forces (the foundation in January 1923 of the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale) and the progressive identification of the Party with the State. He supported the wealthy industrial and agrarian classes through the introduction of legislation that provided for privatization, the liberalization of rent laws, and the banning of unions.
In June of 1923, a new majoritarian electoral law was approved which assigned two thirds of the seats in Parliament to the coalition which had obtained at least 25% of the votes. This law was punctually applied in the elections of 6 April 1924, in which the fascist "listone" obtained an extraordinary success, aided by the use of shenanigans, violence and intimidatory tactics against opponents.
The assassination of the socialist deputy Giacomo Matteotti, who had requested the annulment of the elections because of the irregularities committed, provoked a momentary crisis of the Mussolini government. The weak response of the opposition (the Aventine Secession), incapable of transforming their posturing into a mass antifascist action, was not sufficient to distance the ruling classes and the Monarchy from Mussolini who, on 3 January 1925, broke open the floodgates and, in a famous discourse in which he took upon himself all of the responsibility for the assassination of Matteotti and the other squadrist violence, proclaimed a de facto dictatorship, suppressing every residual liberty and completing the identification of the Fascist Party with the State.
From 1925 until the middle of the 1930s, fascism experienced little and isolated opposition, although that which it experienced was memorable, consisting in large part of communists such as Antonio Gramsci, socialists such as Pietro Nenni and liberals such as Piero Gobetti and Giovanni Amendola.
While failing to outline a coherent program, fascism evolved into a new political and economic system that combined corporatism, totalitarianism, nationalism, and anti-Communism in a state designed to bind all classes together under a capitalist system. This was a new capitalist system, however, one in which the state seized control of the organization of vital industries. Under the banners of nationalism and state power, Fascism seemed to synthesize the glorious Roman past with a futuristic utopia.
Despite the themes of social and economic reform in the initial Fascist manifesto of June 1919, the movement came to be supported by sections of the middle class fearful of socialism and communism. Industrialists and landowners supported the movement as a defense against labour militancy. Under threat of a fascist March on Rome, in October 1922, Mussolini assumed the premiership of a right-wing coalition Cabinet initially including members of the pro-church Partito Popolare (People's Party). In April 1926 the Rocco Law outlawed strikes and Lockouts and suppressed trade-unions, replaced by Fascist syndicates grouped into corporations. Headed by Arturo Bocchini, the OVRA secret police was created in September 1926, and the Casselario Politico Centrale filing system on political opponents generalized . In October 1926 a "Law for the Defense of the State" banned all political parties apart of the Fascist Party, established a Special Tribunal for the Security of the State and reinstated the death penalty. Furthermore, in September 1928 a new electoral law decreed that the whole composition of parliament should be determined by the Fascist Grand Council headed by Mussolini.
The regime's most lasting political achievement was perhaps the Lateran Treaty of February 1929 between the Italian state and the Holy See. Under this treaty, the Papacy was granted temporal sovereignty over the Vatican City and guaranteed the free exercise of Roman Catholicism as the sole state religion throughout Italy in return for its acceptance of Italian sovereignty over the Pope's former dominions. It must be said that some (not all) laws of the lateran treaty where kept alive until 1984 , when all of the lateran treaty was fully dismissed.
In the 1930s, Italy recovered from the Great Depression, and achieved economic growth in part by developing domestic substitutes for imports (Autarchia). The draining of the malaria-infested Pontine Marshes south of Rome was one of the regime's proudest boasts. But growth was undermined by international sanctions following Italy's October 1935 invasion of Ethiopia (the Abyssinia crisis), and by the government's costly military support for Franco's Nationalists in Spain. See Economy of Italy under Fascism, 1922-1943 for further information.
The moderate Socialist Carlo Rosselli was assassinated in 1937 in France by members of the Cagoule terrorist group, probably on orders of Mussolini himself.


Main article: Second Italo-Abyssinian War Invasion of Ethiopia
The Fascists passed anti-Semitic laws in autumn 1938, which excluded foreign Jews, prohibited all Jews from teaching and excluded them from the Fascist Party. Legislation enacting racial discrimination were progressively put in place, in accordance to the "scientific racism" theories upheld in Fascist political reviews, such as La Difesa della Razza. Jews were excluded from the military and from the administration, while an "aryanisation" of Jewish goods was put in place — actually, an expropriation of their goods. An anti-Semitic hate campaign was put in place, while the legislation was strictly applied. As it had little or nothing to do with them, neither the monarchy nor the Church protested against the latter.
Many authors have interpreted these anti-Semitic laws as an imitation by Mussolini of Nazi racist legislation. However, historian Marie-Anne Matard-Bonucci (2007) has upheld, to the contrary, the idea that anti-Semitism founded its roots in the Fascist movement itself: with the establishment of the Fascist state and Mussolini's anthropological project of creating a "new (Italian) man," the needs arose of creating the figure of the "anti-Italian," symbolized by the Jewish people. "The persecution of the Italian Jews was one of the inner components of the totalitarian logic," thus wrote Matard-Bonucci .

Fascism and anti-Semitism
International isolation and their common involvement in Spain brought about increasing diplomatic collaboration between Italy and Nazi Germany. This was reflected also in the Fascist regime's domestic policies as the first anti-semitic laws were passed in 1938. From that year on, with the publication of the Manifesto degli scienziati razzisti (Manifesto of the Racist Scientists) (in reality about 90% written by Mussolini himself), fascism declared itself explicitly anti-Semite.
Italy's intervention (June 10, 1940) as Germany's ally in World War II brought military disaster, and resulted in the loss of her north and east African colonies and the American-British-Canadian invasion of Sicily in July 1943 and southern Italy in September 1943.
After a fateful gathering of the Gran Consiglio del Fascismo (Italy's wartime Cabinet) Mussolini was forced to submit his resignation as prime minister in the hands of King Victor Emmanuel III on July 25th 1943. He hoped that the King would reappoint him and allow him to reshuffle the Cabinet, but he was instead arrested on the King's orders as he was leaving the Quirinale palace. He was freed in September by German paratroopers under command of Otto Skorzeny and installed as head of a puppet "Italian Social Republic" at Salò in German-occupied northern Italy. His association with the German occupation regime eroded much of what little support remained to him. His summary execution on April 28th 1945 during the war's violent closing stages by the northern partisans was widely seen as a fitting end to his regime.
After the war, the remnants of Italian fascism largely regrouped under the banner of the neo-Fascist "Italian Social Movement" (MSI). The MSI merged in 1994 with conservative former Christian Democrats to form the "National Alliance" (AN), which proclaims its commitment to constitutionalism, parliamentary government and political pluralism.

World War II
Fascism did not spring forth full-grown, and the writings of Fascist theoreticians cannot be taken as a full description of Mussolini's ideology, let alone how specific situations inevitably resulted in deviations from ideology. Mussolini's policies drew on both the history of the Italian nation and the philosophical ideas of the 19th century. What resulted was neither logical nor well defined, to the extent that Mussolini defined it as "action and mood, not doctrine". Nonetheless, certain ideas are clearly visible. The most obvious is nationalism. The last time Italy had been a great nation was under the banner of the Roman Empire and Italian nationalists always saw this as a period of glory. Given that even other European nations with imperial ambitions had often invoked ancient Rome in their foreign policy, architecture and vocabulary, it was perhaps inevitable that Mussolini would do the same. This included creating a new Roman empire, demolishing medieval Rome to create grand vistas of ancient monuments (eg connecting Piazza Venezia and the Colosseum with the Via dei Fori Imperiali), co-opting original sites (for example, the Ara Pacis) and using ancient Roman architectural styles, with or without a modern twist (for example, the Museum of Roman Civilization at the EUR).
Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Italy had not again been united until its final unification in 1870. Mussolini desired to affirm an Italian national identity and therefore saw the unification as the first step towards returning Italy to greatness and often exploited the unification and the achievements of leading figures such as Garibaldi to induce a sense of Italian national pride.
The Fascist cult of national rebirth through a strong leader has roots in the romantic movement of the 19th century, as does the glorification of war. For example, the loss of the war with Abyssinia had been a great humiliation to Italians and consequently it was the first place targeted for Italian expansion under Mussolini.
Not all ideas of fascism originated from the 19th century. For example, the use of systematic propaganda to pass on simple slogans such as "believe, obey, fight" and Mussolini's use of the radio both were techniques developed in the 20th century under the influence of the artistic and literary movement called futurism. Futurism was an early twentieth century intellectual movement in Italy which forcefully emphasized three main ideas: technology, speed, and violence. Similarly, Mussolini's corporate state was a distinctly 20th-century creation.

Mussolini's influences

Me ne frego, "I don't give a damn": the Italian Fascist motto
Libro e moschetto - fascista perfetto, "The book and the musket - make the perfect Fascist."
Viva la Morte, "Long live death (sacrifice)."
The above mentioned Tutto nello Stato, niente al di fuori dello Stato, nulla contro lo Stato, "Everything in the State, nothing outside the State, nothing against the State."
Credere, Obbedire, Combattere ("Believe, Obey, Fight")
Se avanzo, seguitemi. Se indietreggio, uccidetemi. Se muoio, vendicatemi, ("If I advance, follow me. If I retreat, kill me. If I die, avenge me") Fascist mottos and sayings



De Felice, Renzo Fascism : an informal introduction to its theory and practice, an interview with Michael Ledeen, New Brunswick, N.J. : Transaction Books, 1976 ISBN 0-87855-190-5.
Fritzsche, Peter. 1990. Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and Political Mobilization in Weimar Germany. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505780-5
Griffin, Roger. 2000. "Revolution from the Right: Fascism," chapter in David Parker (ed.) Revolutions and the Revolutionary Tradition in the West 1560-1991, Routledge, London.
Laqueur, Walter. 1966. Fascism: Past, Present, Future, New York: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Schapiro, J. Salwyn. 1949. Liberalism and The Challenge of Fascism, Social Forces in England and France (1815-1870). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Laclau, Ernesto. 1977. Politics and Ideology in Marxist Theory: Capitalism, Fascism, Populism. London: NLB/Atlantic Highlands Humanities Press.
Sternhell, Zeev with Mario Sznajder and Maia Asheri. [1989] 1994. The Birth of Fascist Ideology, From Cultural Rebellion to Political Revolution., Trans. David Maisei. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Fascist ideology

Coogan, Kevin. 1999. Dreamer of the Day: Francis Parker Yockey and the Postwar Fascist International. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Autonomedia.
Griffin, Roger. 1991. The Nature of Fascism. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Paxton, Robert O. 2004. The Anatomy of Fascism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Weber, Eugen. [1964] 1985. Varieties of Fascism: Doctrines of Revolution in the Twentieth Century, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, (Contains chapters on fascist movements in different countries.)
Wallace, Henry. "The Dangers of American Fascism". The New York Times, Sunday, 9 April 1944.
Trotsky, Leon. 1944 "Fascism, What it is and how to fight it" Pioneer Publishers (pamphlet) Anti-fascist websites

The Problem of Fascism by Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr.
Liberalism vs. Fascism by Roderick T. Long
The Economics of Fascism, Supporters Summit 2005, October 7-October 8, 2005, Mises Institute, Auburn, Alabama.
Economic Fascism by Thomas DiLorenzo
Fascism by Sheldon Richman - discusses economic fascism


John P. Walters
John P. Walters was sworn in as the Director of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) on December 7, 2001. As the nation's "Drug Czar," Mr. Walters coordinates all aspects of federal drug programs and spending.
In July 2007, Walters called growers of marijuana "violent criminal terrorists."


For the Scottish football (soccer) player, see Stephen Glass (footballer)'
Stephen Glass (born 1972) was an American reporter for The New Republic who was fired for fabricating articles, quotes, sources and events. The story of Glass's downfall is told in the 2003 film Shattered Glass.

Paul Ballard Early years
Glass was fired from TNR in May 1998, at the age of 25, after it was discovered that he had committed numerous cases of journalistic fraud. The story that triggered these events appeared in the May 18, 1998 issue. It was called "Hack Heaven", and concerned a supposed 15-year-old computer hacker, who was purportedly hired to work for a large company as an information security consultant after breaking into their computer system and exposing its weaknesses. Like several of Stephen Glass's previous stories, "Hack Heaven" depicted events that were almost cinematic in their vividness and that were told from a first-person perspective implying Glass was there as the action took place. The article opened as follows:
Ian Restil, a 15-year-old computer hacker who looks like an even more adolescent version of Bill Gates, is throwing a tantrum. "I want more money. I want a Miata. I want a trip to Disney World. I want X-Man comic [book] number one. I want a lifetime subscription to Playboy, and throw in Penthouse. Show me the money! Show me the money!"...
Across the table, executives from a California software firm called Jukt Micronics are listening – and trying ever so delicately to oblige. "Excuse me, sir," one of the suits says, tentatively, to the pimply teenager. "Excuse me. Pardon me for interrupting you, sir. We can arrange more money for you ..."
Soon after the publication of "Hack Heaven," Forbes.com reporter Adam Penenberg presented evidence to The New Republic that the story was fabricated and that the company depicted in it did not exist. An internal review by TNR confirmed this, and found that Glass had created a shell website and voice mail account for the company in order to deceive TNR's fact checkers. Some commentators of the scandal considered it to be a great coming-of-age achievement for online journalism. Three other magazines, Rolling Stone, George and Harper's, to which Glass contributed also reviewed his work. Rolling Stone and Harper's found the material generally accurate but had no way of verifying information from Glass' anonymous sources. George discovered Glass fabricated quotes in a profile piece and apologized to the article's subject, Vernon Jordan, a Clinton advisor.

New Republic scandal
A movie presenting a stylized view of Glass's rise and fall, titled Shattered Glass, was released in 2003. The screenplay aimed to portray both the high-pressure world of national political journalism and the inside workings of a national political magazine. Hayden Christensen starred as Glass.

Shattered Glass
Stephen Glass completed his law degree at Georgetown University Law Center after being fired by TNR, and passed the written portion of the New York state bar exam, but has not yet been admitted to the bar. In 2003, he began appearing on television to promote his "biographical novel" The Fabulist. "I wanted them to think I was a good journalist, a good person. I wanted them to love the story so they would love me", he told Steve Kroft of 60 Minutes in an interview, which was included as a special feature for the DVD edition of Shattered Glass. Also in 2003, Glass briefly returned to journalism, writing an article about Canadian marijuana laws for Rolling Stone.


An assignment is a term used with similar meanings in the law of contracts and in the law of real estate. In both instances, it encompasses the transfer of rights held by one party - the assignor - to another party - the assignee. The legal nature of the assignment determines some additional rights and liabilities that accompany the act.

Assignor remains liable unless there is an agreement to the contrary.

Continuing Liability of Assignor
Consumer Protection, Defenses and Setoffs

Liability of Assignee: generally not liable

Warranties of Assignor
Assignment of rights under a contract is the complete transfer of the rights to receive the benefits accruing to one of the parties to that contract. For example, if party A contracts with Party B to sell his car to him for $10, party A can later assign the benefits of the contract - the right to be paid $10 - to party C. In this scenario, party A is the obligee/assignor, party B is an obligor, and party C is the assigneee. Such an assignment may be donative (essentially given as a gift), or it may be contractually exchanged for consideration. It is important to note, however, that party C is not a third party beneficiary, because the contract itself was not made for the purpose of benefitting party C. However an Assignment only transfers the rights/benefits to a new owner. The obligations remain with the previous owner. Compare Novation.

Assignment of contract rights
The common law favors the freedom of assignment, so an assignment will generally be permitted unless there is an express prohibition against assignment in the contract. Where assignment is thus permitted, the assignor need not consult the other party to the contract. An assignment cannot have any effect on the duties of the other party to the contract, nor can it reduce the possibility of the other party receiving full performance of the same quality. Certain kinds of performance, therefore, cannot be assigned, because they create a unique relationship between the parties to the contract. For example, if party A contracts to hire an attorney to represent her in a civil case for a fee of $1000, she cannot then assign her contractual right to legal representation to another party. Note however, that party A can assign her right to sue under the same claim she contracted with the attorney to pursue.

When assignment will be permitted
For assignment to be effective, it must occur in the present. No specific language is required to make such an assignment, but the assignor must make some clear statement of intent to assign clearly identified contractual rights to the assignee. A promise to assign in the future has no legal effect. Although this prevents a party from assigning the benefits of a contract that has not yet been made, a court of equity may enforce such an assignment where an established economic relationship between the assignor and the assignee raised an expectation that the assignee would indeed form the appropriate contract in the future.
A contract may contain a non-assignment clause, which prohibits the assignment of specific rights, or of the entire contract, to another. However, such a clause does not necessarily destroy the power of either party to make an assignement. Instead, it merely gives the other party the ability to sue for breach of contract if such an assignment is made. However, an assignment of a contract containing such a clause will be ineffective if the assignee knows of the non-assignment clause, or if the non-assignment clause specifies that "all assignments are void".
Two other techniques to prevent the assignment of contracts are recission clauses or clauses creating a condition subsequent. The former would give the other party to the contract the power to rescind the contract if an assignment is made; the latter would rescind the contract automatically in such circumstances.

Requirements for an effective assignment
There are certain situations in which the assignment must be in writing.
For more information about contractual writing requirements see Statute of frauds.

Assignment of wages
Assignment of any interest in real property
Assignment of choses of action worth over $5,000
Assignment as collateral for a loan or debt Revocability
A cause of action for breach on the part of the obligor lie with the assignee, who will hold the exclusive right to commence a cause of action for any failure to perform or defective performance. At this stage, because the assignee "stands in the shoes" of the assignor, the obligor can raise any defense to the contract that the obligor could have raised against the assignor. Furthermore, the obligor can raise against the assignee counterclaims and setoffs that the obligor had against the assignor. For example, suppose that A makes a contract to paint B's house in exchange for $500. A then assigns the right to receive the $500 to C, to pay off a debt owed to C. However, A does such a careless job painting the house that B has to pay another painter $400 to correct A's work. If C sues B to collect the debt, B can raise his counterclaim for the expenses caused by the poor paint job, and can reduce the amount owed to C by that $400, leaving only $100 to be collected.
When the assignor makes the assignment, he makes with it an implied warranty that the right to assign was not subject to defenses. If the contract had a provision that made the assignment ineffective, the assignee could sue the assignor for breach of this implied warranty. Similarly, the assignee could also sue under this theory if the assignor wrongfully revoked the assignment.

Breach and defenses
Occasionally, an unscrupulous assignor will assign the exact same rights to multiple parties (usually for some consideration). In that case, the rights of the assignee depend on the revocability of the assignment, and on the timing of the assignments relative to certain other actions.
In a quirk left over from the common law, if the assignment was donative, the last assignee is the true owner of the rights. However, if the assignment was for consideration, the first assignee to actually collect against the assigned contract is the true owner of the rights. Under the modern American rule, now followed in most U.S. jurisdictions, the first assignor with equity (i.e. the first to have paid for the assignment) will have the strongest claim, while remaining assignees may have other remedies. In some countries, the rights of the respective assignees are determined by the old common law rule in Dearle v Hall.

Earlier donative assignees for whom the assignment was revocable (because it had not been made irrevocable by any of the means listed above) have no cause of action whatsoever.
Earlier donative assignees for whom the assignment was made irrevocable can bring an action for the tort of conversion, because the assignment was technically their property when it was given to a later assignee.
Later assignees for consideration have a cause of action for breaches of the implied warranty discussed above. Assignment (law) Successive assignments
A parallel concept to assignment is delegation, which occurs when one party transfers his duties or liabilities under a contract to another. A delegation and an assignment can be accomplished at the same time, although a non-assignment clause also bars delegation.

Assignment of property rights
A person can also assign their rights to receive the benefits owed to a partner in a partnership. However, the assignee can not thereby gain any of the assignor's rights with respect to the operation of the partnership. The assignee may not vote on partnership matters, inspect the partnership books, or take possession of partnership property; rather, the assignee can only be given the right to collect distributions of income. If the partnership is dissolved, the assignee can also claim the assignor's share of any distribution accompanying the dissolution.


Penn Quarter, Washington, D.C. Revitalization
Attractions located in Penn Quarter include:

Ford's Theatre
Shakespeare Theatre Company at the Harman Center for the Arts - includes the Lansburgh Theatre and Sidney Harman Hall
National Theatre
Warner Theatre
Warehouse Theater
International Spy Museum
J. Edgar Hoover Building - FBI headquarters
Marian Koshland Science Museum - Natl. Academy of Sciences
National Archives
National Building Museum
National Gallery of Art
Newseum - Freedom Forum (under construction)
National Museum of Women in the Arts
U.S. Navy Memorial
Verizon Center
Smithsonian American Art Museum
National Portrait Gallery
Woolly Mammoth Theater Company
Zenith Gallery
Touchstone Gallery
Canadian Embassy
Booth Alley
Weschler's Auction House Area events
Penn Quarter is served by the Archives–Navy Memorial–Penn Quarter, Metro Center, and Gallery Place-Chinatown Metro stations and by the Circulator bus, which connects Georgetown, Union Station, and the attractions on The Mall to Penn Quarter.


Torpoint (Cornish: Penntorr) is a town in the far South East of Cornwall, United Kingdom, separated from the City of Plymouth by a stretch of water referred to as the Hamoaze, which itself is the mouth of the River Tamar. It is on the Rame Peninsula.
Torpoint's link to Plymouth (and Devonport) is facilitated by three passenger and vehicle ferries. The current ferries are propelled across the river by pulling themselves on chains. These chains sink to the bottom to allow shipping movements in the river. The ferry journey takes approximately 7 minutes.
Torpoint's population is approximately 11,000. In the Cornish language Torpoint is called Penntorr, which is now also the name of a local folk band.

Origin of name
It is a common tale that Torpoint's name is derived from Tar Point, a name given because of the initial industry on the west bank of the Hamoaze. However this is actually a nickname given by workers, torpoint meaning prominent/rocky point in dialect.
Wooden ships used to have their hulls waterproofed using tar. To facilitate this, a square ballast pond was built in the estuary with an entrance port on one side. A ship would enter the ballast pond and be tied to one wall. Then on the low tide, the ship would lean on one side to allow the tarring. On the next tide, the ship would be tied to the opposite wall to complete the job. This is wrong, the ballast pond was built to store stone ballast discharged from sailing ships, (Hence the name) ships were careened for tarring on the foreshore.


Mistley Towers
Mistley Towers are the twin towers of the now demolished Church of St. Mary the Virgin at Mistley in Essex. The original Georgian parish church on the site had been built in classical style early in the 18th century following the death of Richard Rigby Esquire. Later in that century there was a grandiose plan by his son, the wealthy politician Richard Rigby, to transform Mistley Thorn into a spa town. Rigby wished to see a church from the windows of his mansion and a suitably grand church was required for the affluent visitors expected to patronise the new spa. Thus in 1776, the great architect Robert Adam was commissioned to enhance the church. His design was in the neoclassical style, with a tower at both the east and the west ends of the church. These are now all that remain of the once magnificent structure.
The square symmetrical towers are in the neoclassical style, resembling tall pavilions rather than towers, with each facade pedimented and the whole surmounted by a cupola decorated with blind windows interspersed by Ionic columns. At ground floor level two unfluted ionic columns at each corner support a decorative cornice. The columns are decorative only, and appear to serve no structural purpose. The design of the towers creates the impression that the building was once more of a miniature cathedral than a parish church. However, the main body of the church was small and occupied the (now empty) site between the two towers. It was a single story structure with a simple hipped roof and an entrance portico at its centre. This part of Adam's church was demolished in 1870, when the new parish church in New Road was built.


Spanish Match
The Spanish Match describes the policy and diplomatic negotiations towards a proposed marriage between Prince Charles, the son of King James I of England, and Maria Anna, Infanta of Spain, the daughter of Philip III of Spain. The policy, unpopular with England's Protestant House of Commons, where the defeat of the Spanish Armada had not been forgotten, was initiated during the embassy to England of Gondomar, who arrived in London in 1614 with the offer that Spain would not interfere with James's troubled rule in Ireland if James would restrain the English "privateers" in Spanish American waters. Further, he proposed a marriage alliance, offering a dowry of £500,000 (later increased to £600,000), which seemed especially attractive to James after the failure of the Parliament of 1614 to provide him with the financial subsidies he requested.
The climax of the ensuing decade of high-level negotiation to secure a marriage between the leading Protestant and Catholic royal families of Europe occurred in 1623 in Madrid, with the embassy of the Prince Charles and James's favourite, George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham. The wedding never took place despite the signing of a marriage contract by King James; criticism instead led to the dissolution of Parliament.



Michael Wilding (actor)
Michael Wilding (July 23, 1912July 8, 1979) was an English actor.
Born in Westcliff-on-Sea, Essex, England, Wilding was a successful commercial artist when he joined the art department of a London movie studio in 1933. He soon embarked on an acting career.
He appeared in numerous British motion pictures, often opposite Anna Neagle, but had a less productive career in Hollywood. Some of his most memorable screen performances are in Sailors Three (1940), In Which We Serve (1942), Piccadilly Incident (1946), Spring in Park Lane (1948), Hitchcock's Stage Fright (1950) and The World of Suzie Wong (1960).
Wilding had four wives, Kay Young (married 1937-divorced 1951), actress Elizabeth Taylor (married 1952-divorced 1957), Susan Neill (married 1958-divorced 1962), and actress Margaret Leighton (married 1964-her death 1976).
He and Taylor had two sons, Michael Howard Wilding (born January 6, 1953) and Christopher Edward Wilding (born February 27, 1955).
In the 1960s, he was forced to cut back on his movie appearances due to illness. His last appearance was in an uncredited, non-speaking cameo in Lady Caroline Lamb (1972), which co-starred his last wife, Margaret Leighton.
Michael Wilding died at age 66 in Chichester, West Sussex, due to head injuries suffered from a fall down a flight of stairs during an epileptic seizure. His body was cremated and the ashes were scattered.